Skip to main content

Full text of "Fish and Wildlife Management Report January 1, 1961"

See other formats

No. 55 January, 1961 





Fish and Wildlife Branch 

(These Reports are for Intra-Departmental Information 
and Not for Publication) 

Hon. J. W. Spooner F. A. MacDougall 

Minister Deputy Minister 

No, 55 January, I96I 


Report on Investigation of European Wildlife 
Management Methods (Summer of 1959) 

H.G. Gumming 1-62 



Tllffi SCHEDULE 1 



Britain, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Germany, Summary 5 



Sweden, Norway, Bavaria, 10 



Arrangements in Sv/eden. 14 

Reindeer and Lapps, 14 

Kuolpa Research Station, - 15 

Field trip through northern Sweden, Finland and Norway, l8 

Reindeer parasites and diseases, 20 

Reindeer in Norv/ay and Finland, 20 


General Biology - Description, hahits, habitat, 

food haMts. 21 

Moose hunting - History of hunting in Sweden, licensing 

and enforcement, hunting areas, 24 

Moose management - Moose damage, census and allowahle kill, 

population and production figures. 26 

Additional facts about special areas - 

Southern Sv/eden, 

Hurd al , Norway , 

Solleftea, North-east S?/eden, 29 

Description of moose hunting in Sv/eden - 

Northern hunting with dogs, 

Hiinting in Southern Sv/eden. 31 


Scotlcind, Bavaria, Austria, Denmark, Other Countries, 35 


Bavaria, Denmark, Other Countries, 39 



Disease problems, use of capture gun in research, 42 



Grey sq.uirrels in Englnnd - movement studies, aging criteria, 

population estimation, control. 45 
Marten in Scotland. -47 

Finnish fur-lDearers - red squirrels, muskrats, "beaver, mink, 

bears, 48 

Hares in Denmark -disease in hares, 49 


Birds in Svreden, Sv^edish Research Station, hirds in other 
countries, 50 


Norway, Sweden, other countries. 53 


British Forestry, 55 

Sweden - Hormone sprays, controlled turning, pulp and paper 

companies, ^6 

Norway, 59 

Germany - Forstenreid Park, silvicultiiral theories, logging 

"by cahle in the Alps, 59 

Austria, 6I 



- 1 - 

A chronological table of the places visited is given below, 

June 18 - 24 Ocean crossing, 

June 25 ~ 28 Vacation in Britain. Contacted head of British Forest Service 
ro people to SGe« 

June 29 Visit to Alice Holt Forest Research Station to find out about 
the work being done on grey sq.uirrelSo 

June 30 Visit to Oxford to see Dr. Elton (absent) and Dr. Chitty, 

July 1 Sightseeing in England, 

July 2 Visit to Grange-over-Sands to find out about work of Nature 
Conservancy, accidently met Dr, Elton, 

July 3-12 Sightseeing and travel to Edinburgh, 

July 13 Visit to Nature Conservancy in Edinburgh to meet men working 
in Scotland and to find out something about their work. 

July 14 Sightseeing, 

July 15-16 Trip across Scotland to v/est coast and back to Inverness with 
Mr, P. Lowe who is working on red deer research and who 
pointed out deer range and discussed his work en route. 

July 17 Visit to Remnant Caledonian Pine Forest at Aviemore. 

July 18-30 Sightseeing, 

July 31-Aug, 5 Travel to Stockholm. 

Aug. 6 Stockholm to Gallivare, Lapland 5 Sweden, 

Aug. 7 Waited in Gallivare to meet Ivli^, T. Ahti. 

Aug, 8 Accompanied Ahti to Kuolpa Reindeer Research Station, Talk by 
lUxo Skuncke on condition of reindeer in Sweden and brief tour 
of station. Met Persson and Uggla who were to accompany us. 

Aug. 9 Tour of Research Station, 

Aug. 10 Travel by all five to Vittangi where a car was obtained, 

Aug. 11 Travel north and west to Kilpisjarvi, Finland, vdth stops to 
discuss reindeer range en route. 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 

- 2 - 

Aug, 12 Travel to Lyngen Fiord, Ilorv/ay, to see summer range of 
reinde-'jr, .Return to Kilpisjarvi » 

Aug, 13 Return to Gallivarc examining reindeer range en route, 

Aug. 14 Travel to Muddus National Park to see moose range and discuss 
Dr. Uggla's theories on forest fires, 

Aug, 15 - lo Remained at Muddus, 

Aug, 17 Travelled to Ilaparanda, on the Swedish- Finnish border, 

Aug, 18 Travelled from Haparanda to Helsinki, 

Aug, 19 Interviewed, Matti Helninen of the Game Research Institute 
in Helsinki and left for Stockholm, 

Aug. 20 - 21 In Stockholm contacted Wenmark and the men at Svenske Jakt 

regarding possihility of observing a moose hunt and learning 
something of wildlife management in Sweden, 

Aug, 22 - 23 Weekend sightseeing, 

Aug. 24 - 29 Travel to Oslo for interviews wiith Knut Rom of Norwegian 

Sportsmen's Society and Krafft, a "biologist v/orking vdth moose 
for a pulp and paper company, 

Aug, 30 Returned to Stockholm where I met LIr, Hamilton and talked Vvdth 
Mr, Wallerstedt regarding Swedish hunting customs. 

Sept, 1 Spent the day -with Dr„ Borg visiting a veterinary clinic. 

Sept, 2 Drove to Ostcrmalma Wildlife School Vfallerstedt , Saw 

game-keepers educational program. Guest of Baron von Essen, 

Sept, 3 Discussed school courses. Went to visit Mr, Ackerman, an out- 
door writer and hunter. Returned to Stockholm. 

Sept, 4 - 5 Stockholm to Snanger to visit game bird research station and 
Mr. Hoglundc 

Septo 6 - 9 Travelled to Sclleftea for three days moose hunt on a pulp 
company limit, 

Sept. 10 Return to Stockholm where the men at Svenske Jakt were 
contacted regarding future plans, 

Sept. 11 - 12 Weekend sightseeing, 

Sept. 13 - 14 Travel to Munich. 

Sept, 15 Talk v/ith Dr. Engelhardt and introduced to Chief Forester Gunder, 

Sept.l6 Arranging interpreter etc, for next three days, 

Sept. 17 IntervievvTs in Gov't Office. Gunder offered to take me on two 
trips into the mountains to see v/ild boars, red deer 5 and 

Sept, 18 - 19 Trips into the Bavarian mountains, 

Sept. 20 Travel to Graz, 

Sept, 21 Talked v/ith Dr. Ammon. 

Sept, 22 Travel to Vienna. Dr. Kolner not in. 

Sept. 23 Dr. Kolner still not in but planned to join him on Sept. 27. 

Sept. 24 Mountains - Austrian Alps -■ hoped to see chamois. 

Sept, 25 - 26 Weekend sightseeing, return to Vienna. 

Sept. 27 To Allentsteig, Lay spent with Dr. Kolner learning of 
hunting methods. 

Sept, 28 Leave for Arnhom. 

Sept,29-Oct ,2 International biologists' conference at Arnhem. . 

Oct, 3 - 4 Weekend sightseeing. Return to Sweden, 

Oct, 5 Return to Stockholm. 

Oct. 6 Stockholm to Ostcrmalma, 

Oct. 7 Observed Royal moose hunt in southern Sweden. 

Oct. 8 Travel to Denmark. 

Oct, 9 At Kalo Research Station, talked to ilndersen about his deer 
work . 

Oct, 10 - 11 Weekend sightseeing, 

Oct. 12 - 13 Return to Edinburgh and Aberdeen, 

Oct. 14 Talked with Dr, YL Edwards and Dr. Dunnct of Aberdeen 

Oct, 15 Visit to Scottish farm. 

Oct, 16 - 20 Returned to London and prepared to sail. 

Oct, 21 - 29 Return ocean voyage, 

Oct, 30 Return Toronto, 

- 4 - 


H«G. Gumming 


A com"bination of vacation time and leave-of-alosence was used 
for a trip to Britain, the Pinnoscandian countries, Germany, 
Austria and Holland. The general attitudes of the various 
countries to wildlife and their management methods and hunting 
traditions were studied. The major species involved were 
reindeer, moose, red deer, roe deer, mid hoars and chamois. 
Notes \irere also kept on fur-bearing animals, game birds, 
fisheries and forestry. Visits were made to a yd.ldlifo 
biologists' conference, two sportsmen's associations and a 
vrildlife management school. 


Like most Canadians I have always felt a strong curiosity about the 
Old World. I also had a professional interest in Europe vsrhere the high human 
population and intense utilization of the land presented a previev/ of possible 
future conditions in North America. Similarities between the flora and fauna 
of the two continents suggested that present European wildlife philosophies and 
management methods might become applicable in North America. For these reasons 
I requested a leave-of-absence to extend my trip from a vacation in Britian to 
a fact finding circuit about the northern European continent. 

Very few arrangements mqto made before lea\'lng Canada and only the 
m.ost general timetable was established so that changes could be made en route 
to take advantage of any opportunities that might arise. My vacation period, 
accumulated for two jroars, I spent mainly in Britain v/herc I was able to sec 
and hear some things about British wildlife in addition to sightseeing. I then 
travelled to northern Sweden to study reindeer, returned to southern Finland, 
crossed over to Norway and returned once more to Sv\feden for a moose hunt. I 
turned south in Europe to Bavaria, in southern Germany, where I '.vas able to see 
and study some of the continental animals and management methods. After a week 
in Austria, I returned to Holland where an international biological conference 
was in progress,, I then returned once more to Sweden for a second moose hunt 
and, after a short visit to a research station in Denmark, turned homeivard mth 
only a short stop in Scotland, 


In order to understand sporting practices and wildlife management 
methods in Europe it is necessary first to understand the philosophies 
regarding wildlife and the laws arising from them. The present attitudes to 
vdldlife in Europe arise from traditions dating far hack into feudal times „ 
Hunting was a royal sport and wildlife "belonged to the kings and to tho landed 
aristocracy. An,y commoners caught poaching v/ere severely punished. It v\?as 
against these traditions that settlers in North America, for the most part 
drawn from the common people, reacted by declaring that midlife was the 
property of all and that everyone had equal rights to hunt. Although the large 
estates of Europe are mostly a thing of the past, wildlife still "belongs to the 
landovmer. It comes to "bo regarded almost like domestic livestock. Hunting is 
an expensive privilege, not a right, 

Britain ? 

In Britain all game "belongs to the Crovm, The Common Lav; has ruled 
that when it is killed, it becomes the property of the landovmer upon v;hose 
estate it was killed. With nearly all land in Britain privately ov/ned, game 
has "become considered in almost the same way as if it belonged to the lando^mier. 
Since there is no open hunting there has never been any market hunting in the 
North American sense. Wild game can be sold or bought on the market the same 
as the sheep and cattle raised on the same land, Nor has there been any need 
of seasons, A gentleman's agreement among landovmers decreed that one does not 
hunt deer at certain times of the year and it is not sporting to use unfair 
methods. The landov-mer vrould see to it that anyone hunting on his property by 
invitation obeyed these unwritten rules. 

Since there v/ere fev/ actual game lav\rs the only law enforcement 
necessary was with regard to trespass and theft. These lav/s v;ere usually 
enforced by the game keeper or some other employee on the estate. Only in the 
last fev; years have any inroads been made in this traditional position, 


Swedish traditions in ever7ything from governra:.nt to sports are much 
like those of Britain, In Sv;eden as in Britain all hunting was originally - 
reserved for the King and nobility. Hunting rights are now vested in the land- 
ov.mcr who ma^y either m.ake use of them himself or rent them to someone else. 
The legal position of wildlife was not too clear. Although one person 
definitely stated that the wildlife belonged to the landov.mer, the presence of 
countrywide licences and lav/s and the statements of other people lead me to 
believe that here as in England ownerr,hip is actually vested in the Crovmo At 
any rate in practice v/ildlife is thought of as belonging to the landovmer. 
Vi/'hen game is shot out of season it is not merely a matter of breaking hunting 
regulations. It is also considered as theft in that the landovmer's property 
has been taken. Even on State land there is no open hunting. Only forest 
v/orkers can hunt there. City dwellers can only hunt on lands v/here they have 
rented the hunting rights or v/here they have been invited to hunt by someone 
v/ho ovms or is renting hunting rights. 

- 6 - 

Reindeor in Sweden are considered to be domestic animals since none 
of the original v/ild ones remain. This means that no hunting or v/ildlife lav/s 
apply to reindeer. Practically all other animals that we would consider v/ild 
are there considered in the same way. There is a very close integration 
betv/een v;ildlife and forestry. Moose browse is always referred to a.s moose 
damage. There is a continual effort to obtain a mutually beneficial balance 
between forestry products and v/ildlife. 

Hunting licences are required in Sweden but they are actually 
licences to carry a gun rather than to huntc Ho shot-gun or rifle can be 
bought without a licence. When the licence has been obtained daunting rights 
to some area still have to be found before it is actually permissible to hunt. 
Besides the original licence there is an extra sum charged for each moose 
killed. The main compulsion tov/ard paying this extra fee seems to be a moral 

Game laws are enforced by the local police officers. Penalties 
include payment for the game to the landoT/'mer or renter on whose land it was 
shot, a fine to the government, loss of gun and in some cases refusal of 
licence renewal which prevents the acq.uisition of a new gun. In other cases 
the offender might be put out of the national hunting society or in severe 
cases go to jaile There is nothing nominal about the enforcement by local 
police. Their activities in this regard seem quite similar to the enforcement 
activities of our conservation officers in Ontario. 

I'^orway g 

Norwegian game philosophies and laws seem to be very similar to those 
of Sweden. If anjrbhing, there is a little less tradition connected v/ith the 
hunting in Norway, The landowner can set up the hunting on his land on any 
basis he wants to and charge any rent for v/hich he can find a buyer,, 
Enforcement in Norway is also by the local police but it v/as reported to be not 
as active as in Sweden, The Norwegians claimed tha,t this was not much of a 
problem because the interest of the local citizens prevented any great amount 
of illegal shooting. Some large landovmers and sportsmen's groups have their 
own enforcement officers. Game can be sold here as in other European countries, 
The wild reindeer are cxasidered as game and suitable hunting lav^rs apply, 

Sor.r.iark s 

In Denmark the philosophy of private o\'7nership of v/ildlife was 
clarified for me by a story of red deer damaging sugar beets. If the red deer 
comes at night from a woodlot :nto a neighbours field of beets the law forbids 
the landovmer to shoot the deer at night. At the same time he cannot sue the 
other man for damages because as soon as the deer crosses on to his property it 
is considered to belong to him„ This makes for serious prr^lems where there 
are over-pcpulations of deer. Hunting in Denmark is on the basis of hunting 
areas o\Tnied or rented, yet despite uhe very dense population of humans it v;as 
claimed tha-.: anyone who wants to hunt can do so. They also stated that despite 
long seasonr; and no bag limits there is no depletion of game. This is partly 
because their major big game species is the roe deer which is very difficult to 

- 7 - 

ovei^-shoot and partly because of good management "by the owners or renters of 
the hunting areas. As it does to most Europeans, the North American system of • 
v/idc open hunting sounds fantastic to the Danes, They see it as a disorganized, 
uncontrollahle, dangerous melee. 

G'-;rnany g 

The situation in Germany is somewhat different from any of the other 
European countries. During my talks with officials in Bavaria I discovered the 
only example on my entire trip of landowners not having the hunting rights on 
their oxm property. Since I85O, when the first hunting laws were passed and 
the first hunting areas set up, ovmers of property smaller than 8I hectares 
(200 acres) have not ovmed the hunting rights on their ovm land. They m^ast 
comtine their property with some adjacent land to make an area larger than 
81 hectares as a hunting unit. Anyone mth land over this size does have 
hunting rights which he can either use himself or rent to others. In Germany 
the renting of hunting rights is a profitahle "business* 

Each hunter must have a licence for three years before he can rent a 
hunting area for himself, "Until that time he can only hunt at the invitation 
of friends. In order to get a hunting licence an oral examination must "bo 
passed. Six examiners are selected by the government to ask q_uestions on 
different phases of hunting. Since it is considered to be an honour to be 
chosen, the examiners arc all voluntary. The head examiner is the President of 
the State Licencing Office, A prospective licencee is questioned by each 
examiner in turn on his own particular speciality. The applicant must have 
satisfactory knov/ledge about firearms, hunting, regulations and traditions and 
about the animals themselves in order to qualify. 

In reply to my questions as to where this required information could 
be obtained, I was informed that one could go with a friend, read books, or go 
to one of the State courses for new hunters. It was considered best to do all 
three. At the State courses instruction is given regarding the written hunting 
laws of the State, the unvrritten laws and knov/ledge about animals and hunting 
methods. Since the licence is issued to allow shooting of specified numbers of 
bucks, does and fawns accurate age and sex determination in the field is 
essential. The licence can be rescinded if the hunter shoots the vjrong deer. 
For this reason field- methods for age and sex determination such as size of 
antlers and body form, ai-e taught as part of the course <, The handling of fire- 
arms is also included and under this system only one or two accidents have 
occurred in Bavaria in the last several years, 

I was interested in finding out v/hat some of their hunting laws vrerc, 
I discovered t'hat jacklighting and night hunting in general were forbidden, ITo 
hunting was allowed from cars, ITo dogs or drives were allowed for the hunting 
of roe deer or red deer. Shot-guns except Y/ith slugs and ,22 calibre rifles 
were disallowed. Snaring deer was also forbidden. On' the positive side it v/as 
required that a metal tag be put on red deer, rce deer, chamois and vn.ld boar 
before removing them from the forest. Another lav/ required that any hunting 
area owner or renter must have a dog available 'jo follow wounded red doer or 

- 8 - 

roe deer. The unvoritten laws or traditions covered such things as not shooting 
at red deer over 200 metres (about 65O ft,.) or rahbits at over 40 paces. The 
laws were surprisingly similar to ours but they v/ent even further than ours in 
some respects. 

Enforcement of the la'.vs is by the gamekeepers, the German 
"Professional Hunters", These men are private employees and only have 
authority in their owti hunting areas. In -Ghcse areas, however , they have 
practically police pov/ers being able to arrest poachers and take them to court. 
The gamekeepers are required to pass a State examination similar to that 
required for a hunting licence but much more difficult. Successful candidates • 
arc given a badge which is worn on their hunting- cap o YiJhen cases come to trial, 
several courts, instead of lev;^^ing regular fines, order the man to pay an equal 
amount to the very powerful and widespread midlife protection organization. 
It is thus used for the benefit of v/ildlifo, 

SiTmp^ry s 

The general European concept of midlife as private property'" has led 
to many differences in practice from North America, Most vd.ldlife management 
is done on small areas by private individuals, either as a part of general 
forestry practice or for the express purpose of providing the ovmer or renter 
with more game. State employed biologists were quite rare in comparison v/ith 
North America, The laws of hunting were much more general in som.e v/ays and yet 
more demanding in others. More emphasis was placed on traditions and the 
proper thing to do. The practical results of these attitudes 7d.ll become more 
evident in the examination of particular situations, 


An international wildlife biologists conference was held at Arnhera, 
Holland, from September 27th to October 3rdo Having been informed of the 
conference by Dr, de Vos of the Ontario .dgri cultural College, I planned my trip 
so that I could listen in on the meeting for a few days, I v/as rather surprised 
at the small size of the gathering sj.nce there v/ere only fifty or sixty men 
present. Besides all the ordinary probloni-j im-olved in such meetings 
they had the additional one of langij.ages. The m.oeting finall;>' settled into the 
practice of having all papers summarized in German and Englisl by someone v/ho 
knew both languages. Although the practice of wildlife menageraent in Europe is 
more intensive and probably much more effective than in North America, their 
midlife research work at present seems to bo lagging somewhat behind that of 
Canada and the United States „ There is too much of a tendency to rely on 
traditional management methods ajid neglect the development of new ones, 

A good example of this slowness; in taking over new ideas was displaj'^ed 
by the verbal battle in the Arnhem- meeting over the causes of poor antlers in 
roe deer, Dr, Reick of Germ.any started it by saying in a paper that tho 
traditional argument as to v/hether poor antlers were caused by hereditary or 
environmental conditions v/as nov/ obsolete. He stated that selective hunting had 
boon going- on for many years througnout Si.^rope and that antlers had only 

_ 9 - 

decreased in quality as a result. It was his opinion that there was now no 
further doubt hut that population levels and food conditions v/ero the 
determining factor. 

Many others were not so sure of this, Dr, Borg of Sweden v/ondered 
ahout the uses of antlers and mentioned a Norwegian paper which stated that 
antlers are a means of increasing the hody surface for cooling during summer 
and are not of much use as weapons. This brought on further controversy/ 
concerning the value of antlers to the deer. Some of the suggestions wore 
that antlers were accessories of no use, weapons for fighting in defence, and 
behaviour and sex linked characters, Dr, Rieck v/as asked if any research were 
being done on a relation between parasites and antlers in Germany, He 
answered in the affirmative and wont on to declare that a negative correlation 
had been found. It was questioned whether present antlers were really any 
worse than those of some years ago and some men took each side. 

Dr. do Vos then stated the North American tradition on this question 
and Dr, Fnitehead of England agreed. He described the roe deer population 
introduced into Ireland from an area v/hich grew very poor antlers. In the nev/ 
range the same deer grow good antlers. He also cited a similar experience v/ith 
red deer in New Zealand, 

Perhaps North American biologists would do no better in a discussion 
of the value of antlers, but it seemed to me that a discussion of the causes of 
poor antlers would never even have arisen in a biologists' meeting in North 
America. There is now very little controversy among professional biologists on 
this point. It is generally accepted that soil and food conditions plus 
population size determine not only the development of good antlers but of good 
animals as well. These concepts were not nearly so well accepted in Europe, 

Another interesting question that arose was the danger of using 
poisons of various kinds in agriculture and forestry. Examples of actual 
damage from poisoning were called for. In Sv;eden 5? 000 to 50,000 herons were 
killed by chronic poisoning due to DDT and similar chemicals used for insects. 
About 3 J 000 black-headed gulls wore killed by another chemical a fev; months 
previous. They v/ere unable to find the source of the poison. 

In England DNOC was nrated the biggest killer among the v/eod control 
chemicals. It was stated that organo-phosphorus sometimes caused large scale 
local deaths but its effects varied with the weather, Aldrins have killed 
pigeons and game birds and sodium arsenitc used for potato bugs is also 
dangerous. DDT has been knovm to kill 20 partridges in one instance. It was 
the general opinion of the meeting that the widespread use of those poisons v/as 
an undesirable thing and efforts should be made to have their application 

The meeting would have been more use to me if I had been able to 
attend it near the first of m.y trip. As it was, I was only able to visit one 
research station as a result of contacts made at the conference. However, the 
opportunity to meet and talk v/ith so many European biologists and to hear a 
discussion of their problems made the little extra effort required to take in 
the meeting well worthv/hile. 

- 10 - 

Sweden s 

The most unusual sportsmons organization was the Sv/edish National 
Hunting Society (to give it an English name). It is a comhination Sportsmon's 
Association and government department. It was first hegun as a sportsmen's 
organization in l330. In 1938 it received the first payment of a government 
suhsidy. This was not in the form of a gift, but rather it v/as a nationaliza- 
tion. The society is now authorized and controlled by the government <as a 
working body to carry cut vdldlife management in Sweden. At the same time, it 
maintains its membership of sportsmen throughout the country as well as a 
separate group of associate members who are landowners. It was certainly a 
most unusual combination of government and sportsmen. 

The executive of the organization is headed by the Chairman appointed 
for a two year period from among the ordinary members of the party in povror in 
the Swedish Parliament. Under him are six Directors seloctod from the Hunters 
Congress in Stockholm and chosen so that two represent the north of Sv/cden, two 
come from the middle country and two from the south. There is an executive 
staff with stenographers and assistants who are civil servants and v/hc have an 
office in Stockholm. There are no field biologists but there are eighteen 
consultants in districts throughout Sweden, These are mostly graduates of the 
v/ildlife sohool and act in an advisory capacity to the local organizations. 

The sportsmon's side of the organization is made up of 65,000 - 70,000 
active members and 110,000 associate members. The active members are hunters 
who pay 10 Kroner (S2,00) a year membership to join one of the 25 county 
organizations. They automatically become members of the national organization 
and half of the fee is sent on to that body. The associate members arc mostly 
lando\vners v/ho are given a free membership. They are encouraged to work vdth 
the local sportsmen tov/ard improving conditions for wildlife, A monthly paper 
called "Svensk Jakt" is published by the organization along v;ith occassional 
scientific publications. 

The funds provided for the organization by the governm.ent are 
obtained from the sale of the 10 Kroner hunting licences which allow tlic 
carrying of a gun. Of the 25O5OOO licences sold each year, about 
2j 000, 000 Kroner (equivalent to about S6OO5OOO in buying povrer) goes to the 
National Hunting Society, Each year's activities are financed by the money 
collected the previous year. An annual budget must be presented to tho 
government outlining proposed projects and expenditures for the coming yop.r. 
The government thus has final control of the organiza,tion' s finances. 

The organization of associate members seems to be an attempt to 
improve relations with landov/ners and at the same time encourage valdlifc 
management. A law has been enacted setting forth the method by v/hich these 
landovmers may band together into management units, ^fhen a group of land- 
ov/ners wish to organize, they inform the county level of the sportsmans 
organization and their group is registered for a period of five or ten years. 
At the end of that time the small organization must be reviev/ed by the county 
group, to determine if they are functioning well before their registration can 

- 11 - 

I:)© renewed. These farmers' organizations may get grants from the county 
3portsraenfe organization for depredations on livestock or for wildlife improve- 
ments such as plantings for cover. Usually when such a farmers' organization 
exists, the whole area containing their comhined holdings is leased for hunting 
as one unit. Individual owners then share the proceeds on a proportional "basis. 
Tliis seemed to me to be an excellent way of encouraging wildlife on private 

Norway t 

The most active private sportsmenfe organization vdth which I was in 
contact was in Jlorway, It is an organization of associated cluhs with a total 
membership of 28,000. The executive is made up of four secretariesj one of 
vvhom travels around to member clubs, one looks after publications, one 
concentrates on dogs and one is general secretary assisted by three steno- 
graphers. In their Oslo office I talked to Mr, Knut Rom their general secretary, 
There are several sources of income for the club. Among them is an 
8 Norwegian Kron r (s^l,15) fee forwarded for each member by the local clubs, a 
5 Norvv-egian Kroner (.l'y0) fishing licence in the management area surrounding 
Stockholm, and an annual grant of about 30,000 Kroner (•*4j300) from the 
government. The annual budget for the club funds is around 250,000 Norwegian 
Kroner (335,700), Of this amount about 80,000 Norv/egian Kron-r (311,400)- is 
spent for fisheries work alone. This includes running their own hatchery, 
doing lake surveys, restocking and many other kinds of management projects. In 
the -v/ildlife field they maintain a running battle government biologists 
over the vriLld reindeer herd of Norvray and they presented me vdth some 
convincing arguments on their side. They are also interested in all other 
forms of hunting including the willow grouse, ptarmigan and moose, 

Bavaria ? 

Before the last war there v/as a law to the effect that all hunters in 
Bavaria miust belong to the sportsmen's organization. A hunter could be ejected 
from the sportsmen's organization for breaking the unv^nr-itten laws of hunting. 
This would mean that he would not be able to renew his hunting licence. In 
this way it was possible to keep a very tight rein on hunters. Since the war 
this law has been rescinded. Of the 30,000 hunters no\/ in 3avaria about 22,000 
belong to the hunter oi'ganization. Many hunters feel that the present 
situation leads to a breakdovm of many of the traditional hunting courtesies. 
Despite some agitation from hunters to get the law re-enacted, the State 
authorities hesitate because they consider it an undemocratic practice, 

A second organization, the National Protection Organization in 
Bavaria seemed to be of a slightly different nature. Dr. Eng hardt, who is 
very prominent in the organization, told m.e that it was established for the 
protection and conservation of v/ildlife. He cited as an example of their v/ork, 
a 10 year battle that has been waged between vj-ildlife and timber interests over 
deer damage to forests. He said that their organization had taken an active 
part on the side of the v/ildlife and that he was happy to be able to say that 
an amicable agreement had now been reached. Levels of deer populations arc 
reduced through hunting to the point that damage to the forests is not 

- 12 - 

extensive. The memlDership of the organization is about 60,000 and memhership 
fees are 2 Marks per year (.5025 )• They have no full time employees hut rely 
on volunteers. 


The Sv/edish National Hunting Society supports a v/ildlife management 
school at Ostermalma about 30 miles from Stockholm, With Mr, Wallerstedt of 
the Hunting Society I spent a lovely September afternoon driving through the 
southern Swedish countryside to the school. It v/as harvest time and the golden 
fields shovred up plainly the scattered patches of green forests in v/oodlots and 
around the rocky outcroppings in the fields. The school is held in what v/as 
formerly a large country estate „ The woodlot surrounding it is a State forest 
and the principal of the school is also the forester in charge of the State 
forest. There is a small lake in front of the main buildings and streams and 
ponds here and there through the area. The large white buildings of unusual 
architecture were set in these beautiful surroundings. 

Inside the main building there was a pleasant "old world" atm.osphere. 
On the ground floor there were living q.uarters for the school principal 
Baron von Essen and his -wife and family. On the second floor wore rooms for 
guests, a small classroom and two offices. The classroom v;as hung with 
tapestries- from Turkey imported by the original ovmer. In the halls trophies 
from moose, roe deer and sitka deer adorned the walls. We were made most 
welcome here and after being shovm our room we were taken out for a tour of the 
surrounding area before dark. 

After v/alking through an orchard where a roe deer favm could be seen 
grazing under the apple trees we came to the pheasant raising pons. The old 
fashioned way of raising pheasants with hens is taught for use on small areas 
and the more modern method with electrically heated brooding pens for use on 
larger estates. We passed by duck ponds v/ith artificial nesting sites and went 
on to visit a flock of tame geese. Later we drove through the towering forests 
to Yfhere a small trout pond and stref:;m v/ere maintained. Although wo were 
unable to see any moose I was fortunate in hea,ring my first roe deer barking on 
a mist covered meadow, A food plant nurser;/ was maintained from which I listed 
the following species s 

Plants for W.lldlife 


Hosa canina 

Hos a ru£os a regeliana 
3or." bu_s^ a n cup art a 
Cratae£TJ_3 monogry'-na 

^ :'bcr es cens 

(Siberian pea,} 
Picea ab i e s 
Prunus avium 



Food and shelter 

Food and shelter 


Food and shelter 

Food and shelter 



Food and shelter 

- 13 - 

Upon returnmg tothe main buildings v/e passed a large dog kennel, 
Labrador retrievers and the Swedish moose dogs v/ere among several varieties 
represented. In answer to my questionsj it was explained that not only v/ere 
the students taught game management, hut the organization of hunting and the 
conducting of hunting parties thus thej would need to know hov/ to handle dogs 
and guns. Practical field training is given in various methods of hunting. 

The following day I learned some more about the school. It v/as 
begun in 1947. The buildings and grounds are State property rented by the 
National Hunting Society, The school receives from the government about 
133,740 Swedish Rronor (S26,750)per year. Most of this is obtained from the 
10 Kroner licence fund, but about 20,000 Kroner (S4,000) comes from the 
National Hunting Society's separate income. About 43,740 Kroner (38,750) of 
this amount is used as v/ages for the permanent employees. These include the 
head of the school. Baron von Essen, a.n assistant principal who is also an 
administrator, a practical teacher, a gardener and a housekeeper. Another 
7,000 Kroner (Si, 400) is set aside for special lecturers and the remainder is 
spent on maintenance and general operations. 

The school is run from February 1st to December 1st for one complete 
course. There is no tuition fee, but I50 Kronor ($30, OO) board and 75 Itronor 
($15.00) for books and ammunition is charged each month. Only 12 students are 
accepted at one time. Entrance requirements include employment for at least 
six months on a big estate or forest company vrorking v;ith game management. 
Most students have over a year of practical experience before entering* 
Several foreign students take the course from time to time, most of thorn 
coming from Norv/ay and Denmark, I v/as informed that they had tried a three 
months special course for employees of the National Hunting Society and that 
this programme would probably be continued at intervals. 

In order to determine toward v/hat ends the school was directed I 
enquired about the destination of the students after graduating. They 
informed me that in the eight years the school had been operating I69 Sv/edish 
students have applied, of whom 87 have been accepted and 84 completed the 
course. Of this number, 32^ have gone with the- National Hunting Society, 25^ 
with forest companies, l8^ v/ith private estates, dfo have started into game- 
keeping as a private business and IJ'fo are now v/orking at other lines. It 
appears that the purpose of the school is to turn out vdldlifc workers with 
sound practical and technical knov/ledge but not on a university level. 

In reply to my questions about courses I v/as supplied v/ith the 
curriculum, the major points of v/hich v;cre translated for me on the spot. The 
subjects studied are as follov/s; Gamekeeping, breeding, releasing game, 
reducing predators, hunting, knov/ledge about game, dog training- and keeping, 
weapon handling and game shooting, lav/s and the hunting society, fish and 
fisheries, forest management, gardening and map reading. 

After considc ;-ing the school as a v/hole, I came to the conclusion 
that it v/as somewhere Vjetweon the level of the Forest Ranger School and the 
v/ildlife course at the Ontario Agricultural College, v/ith more detailed 
practical instruction than either. I received there one of the warmest 
v/elcomes of any plac on my trip and their friendliness and v/illingness to 
go out of their v/ay 'o be helpful was greatly appreciated. 

- 14 - 


Arrangements in Sv/eden s 

The only definite arrangements that I had made before leaving Canada 
were v« B.([r, Ted Ahti of Finland whom I had met in northern Ontario the 
previous year, l-tr, Ahti had v/ritten that he was to meet I&o Folke Skuncke and 
some other Scandinavians interested in reindeer range analysis for a trip to 
northern Sweden, Finland and Norv/ay studying various range conditions, Upon 
heing assured of my interest he made arrangements for me to join the field 

I met Mr. Ahti in Gallivars, Lapland, Sweden > on August Sth, 1959. 
We left almost at once for a Sv/edish reindeer research station called Kuolpa 
which v/as situated about I5 miles south of Gallivare and could only be reached 
by taking a train to Harrtrask and walking for about tvro miles through the- 
woods. Since the research station consisted of only three small buildings, it 
reminded me somewhat of the early research station in Algonquin Park. The- 
three buildings were a cook-house and residence for the cook, a bunk-house, and 
a building to do paper work and some laboratory work. The staff of the 
research station was as follows s Mr, Folke Skuncke who v/as in charge, a 
veterinarian vmo spent about half his time at the station, two to four Lapp 
herders, and a Lapp v/oman as cook. 

The two other Swedish members of our party besides Mr, Skuncke had 
already arrived at the station, Dr, Evald Uggla might be described as a 
research forester. He did his Ph,D, work on forest fires and still lectures at 
the Forest High School (similar to our Faaalty of Forestry) at the University 
of Uppsala. Sven Persson v/as a student at Uppsala v/ho v/as v/orking on lichens 
during the summer, Dr, Uggla came on the trip to increase his knowledge of 
caribou; Mx, Persson came to improve his knowledge of lichensj and Mr, Ahti 
came to improve his understanding of l!bo o Skuncke ' s range analysis methods. 

Reindeer and Lapps s 

Soon after our arrival at the station we assembled in the laboratory'" 
for a talk by I'lr, Skuncke on the background information essential to e.n under- 
standing of the reindeer in Sv.-eden, A most amazing fact ,- learned later in 
Stockholm, v/as the total population of reindeer in SAveden, estima,ted at 275? 000 
animals. This is almost- three tim>es the estimated number of moose. These are 
all domesticated animals, the last wild ones having disappeared about I9OO. 
The reindeer belong to about 3,000 Lapp herders out of a total population of 
10,000 La.pps in Sweden and 33,000 Lapps in the v/orld. Only Lapps are allov/ed 
to ov-m. reindeer in Sweden, but this is not so in ITorv/ay or Finland, v/here any- 
one can keep them. When the v/ord Lapland is applied to Sv/eden, it refers to 
the north-v/est province of the country sometimes called Landskap. Lapland, 
ITorrbotten and Vasterbotten are divided into Lappmarks v/hich are something like 
our Forest Districts running north-v/est to south-east v/ith the rivers. The 
Lappmarks are divided into siidas which are somev/hat like long narrow 
registered traplines. Each family of Lapps is supposed to keep their reindeer 
v/ithin their ov/n sitor except on the eastern side of Sweden v/here the 

- 15 - 

boundaries "become rather vague. There are 34 mountain aiidas and l6 forest 
siidas. They are patterned on the traditional migration routes of the reindeer. 
The Lapps keep the herd together "but they let the reindeer take the lead in 
finding food. These divisions of northern S\wed.en may "be found on a map in 
Mro Skuncke's latest book (Skuncke, 195'^ )» 

There are two kinds of reindeer, mountain reindeer and forest 
roindocro The mountain reindeer migrate to the western mountains in the spring 
for summer pasture and return to the eastern grazing lands along the Gulf of 
Bothnia in autumn. The forest riendeer arc much more sedentary spending nearly 
all their lives in the forests. The forest reindeer bulls weigh from I50 to 
200 kilogrammes (330-440 lbs,). During the rut an animal of this size may lose 
from 10 to 20 kilogrammes (22-44 lbs,). The mountain reindeer are somewhat 
smaller, v/eighing from 100 to I50 kilogrammes (220-330 lbs.) before the rut. 
These are believed to be live weights but it is not certain. 

Farming in Sweden goes as far north as about Karesuando or Mauna 
along the Tome River from the Gulf of Bothnia. The western side of the 
country is more or less unsuitable for agriculture, Farther south on the 
eastern side of Sweden in Vasterbotten large scale farming is practiced and 
here conflict coraetimes arises between reindeer herders and the farmers. By 
lav; the farmers are responsible for repairing their own fences but the reindeer 
owners must pay for any damage done. Since it is winter time when they are in 
that part of the country not a great deal of damage is done to crops. 

Some Lapps come from Norway into Sv/eden and -vice versa but there is 
no interchange between Finland and Sv/eden, There are international agreements 
betv/een Morv/ay and Sv/eden allov/ing certain numbers of roindeor to be pastured 
for the summer in Norway by Sv/edish Lapps and again specified numbers to be 
v/intered in Sv;eden by the Norv-cgian herders. This v;orks quite v;ell but there 
are alv;ays some complaints on either side over grazing more than the specified 

Kuolpa Research Station s 

The first buildings for the research station v/erc begun in September 
of 1^554. The first reindeer v/erc obtained in the Spring of 1955* They wore 
driven up from Rodingstrask far to the south near Bod en because there exists 
there a comparatively homogeneous herd of. forest reindeer, A vrire fence has 
been built around an area of 1,250 hectares (about 3j000 acres) or 4»7 square 
miles. Since the snov/ in that area gets to be about four feet deep a fence tv/o 
metres high v/as required. In Sweden the cost of fencing was about 5-^5 Sv/edish 
Kroner per metre or perhaps o3O0 per ft. They consider a not type fence with 
20 centimetre squares to be a,bout the best. 

In April in deep snov.- the herd v/as driven through a gap in the wire 
fence v/hich was then closed up. There v/ore 53 adult animaAs at this time, 
lir, Skuncke considered that this was about a minimum number for such an 
operation. Ho said that the larger the num.bers were the easier the herd v/as to 

- 16 - 

Inside the fence they built corrals in five different places hefore 
they managed to get the reindeer into them. At first they had mountain Lapps 
who were used to herding the mountain reindeer with dogs "by whooping and 
driving them. The forest reindeer were so wild that they could not be handled. 
Later they got Lapps who lived in the forest. They used no dogs, spoke quietly 
and moved slowly at all times. Only three men were used. Mot only v/ere they 
able to get the reindeer into the corral but they had them tamed vd.thin three 
months. The reindeer can now be caught by hand. 

Insect pests were used to help in taming the reindeer. The corral 
which we visited v/as built near a small stream in a swamp but on a hummock so 
that the ground v/ithin the corral was well drained except for the stream 
running through one corner and springy v/ith deep turf. An open faced shed v/as 
built on the high ground and a smoke fire of wet turf on logs was built in 
front of it. The reindeer driven into this corral would find relief from the 
insects in the smoke and in the shed. In this way they v/ere soon brought under 
control and tamed. Now it is difficult to keep them out of the corral. A few 
wild reindeer, not from the original herd, were in the corral trying to escape 
the mosquitoes while we v/ere there. 

From the original herd of 53 adult animals l8 young were born in the 
first year, 1955 • There were 26 or 27 young born the second year in 1956 j 39 
in 1957, 28 in 1958 and 35 in 1959 • They lose about tv/o or three animals each 
year through disease and some have escaped over the outside fence. The present 
number of animals is 140. 

The working corral stood about 200 yds. through the woods from the 
buildings. It was about 100 ft, square and at the time of our first approach 
contained about 40 reindeer. We were cautioned to be very quiet and make no 
sudden movement as we entered the corral. While we watched, the Lapps began 
catching some of the reindeer for Lir. Skuncke to measure mth calipers and 
tape. Most of the animals were caught by one hind leg and then guided from 
before and behind to the proper place. A few had to be chased and lassoed 
a rope. After being measured the reindeer v/ere taken to a spring scale hung in 
the shed, A sling was put under them and they were weighed alive. After we 
had vratched and photographed the measuring and weighing of about half-a-dozen 
reindeer, we returned to the buildings for an explanation of the v/ork that was 
being done. Although the corral v/as quite unimpressive I found that the 
purpose it served was of much greater value than the rather simple arrangements 

The research being carried on at Kuolpa may be divided into four 
sections, two under the direction of I\ffr. Skuncke and two under the direction of 
the veterinarian. Projects were as follows? 

1, A study of the summer food habits within the enclosure. Much of the 
material on reindeer summer range analysis in Mr, Skuncke ' s new book (Skuncke 
1958) '^vas gathered within the enclosure of the research station. On an after- 
noon field trip we examined some of the large marshes on the area. The low- 
land sites seemed alm.ost identical with many found in northern Ontario except 
that Ilorway spruce replaced v/hite spruce on the uplands and Scotch pine 
replaced black spruce in the wetter marsh edges. Our party dug several places 

- 17 - 

in the marsh examining the various food plants present. We also looked at some 
Salix species, and other shrubby grov/th eaten as summer food. The study of 
food habits was extremely easy because the animals were so tame. They v/ere 
wa,ndering all around the buildings grazing on various kinds of grasses and 
could even be seen from the v.dndows. Since they live in almost a natural state 
it was merely a matter of several years observation to determine food habits. 

When I asked about winter food I was informed that the fenced area is 
not sufficient to support that size of herd throughout the Y/interc We were 
shown feeding troughs used to supplement their v/intor diet, ¥\Xc Skuncke stated 
that the diet recommended by Prof. Haflond of Veterinary High School in 
Stockholm was as folloirsi 1 kilogramme of dried sugar-beet per deer per day 
(refuse from the factories, free of molasses which gives the reindeer 
indigestion) plus salt and a meal made from the waterplants Pucus_ and Lamin ar ia., 
They were also fed herring meal and fish meal in small quantities. Even this 
artificial feeding is not sufficient to keep the herd throughout the winter and 
the Lapp herders are forced to take them from the enclosure and handle them in 
the normal way for all reindeer herds, that is, by sim.ply keeping them together 
and restricting their v/anderings. 

2, Measurements of the animals to determine growth rate and to establish 
v;hether the mountain and forest reindeer are different sub-species. The two 
groups of reindeer look different and behave differently. The mountain rein- 
doer have short triangular faces whereas the forest reindeer have long 
rectangular faces. As mentioned before the forest reindeer are much more 
nervous and must be handled differently, Thej are also larger in weight. Body 
measurements were being carried out at Kuolpa to determine if the two groups 
were different ?^ubspecies. The information thus gathered was filed on cards, 

3. Parasites, Although black flies, mosquitoes, warble flies and bot 
flies all attack the reindeer it is the latter two that are studied at Kuolpa, 
The veterinarian who v;orks at Kuolpa part-time and at Stockholm part-time on 
reindeer diseases is in charge of this \7ork. They have tried some insect 
sprays for control purposes but have not as yet found anything that is 

4o Castration, Lapps castrate their reindeer for the same reasons that 
farmers castrate domestic catties 

(a) It increases the growth of the animals, 

(b) It eliminates excess males from the population. 

(c) It reduces the weight lost during rutting season, 

(d) It malves the reindeer easier to handle. 

Very often the herd loader is an old steer and it is usually steers 
tliat the Lapps break to harness. The work at Kuolpa according to the 
veterinarian whom I met later in Stockholm is to determine v;hat age is best 
for castrating and to compare results of the Lapp hand method of castrating 
with that using Australian sheep castrating tools, lilr, Skuncke said that it 
appeared that the best time to do the castrating was under one year of age so 
that the mother could still be determined a,nd the best calves retained for 
brooding. There are several bad effects from total castration. It is more 

- 18 - 

painful to the aiiimal and it causes deformation of the antlers. With the Lapp 
method very regular antlers are ohtained. The veterinarian is v/orking on a 
mechanical method which Yri.ll he similar in effect to the Lapp method. 

Altogether J I v/as most impressed hy the efficiency v/ith which 
information was heing ohtained for a very small outlay of capital. By keeping 
the establishment small and supplj'ing the two scientists in charge with plenty 
of field assistance a great deal of useful information is Deing ohtained on 
the very modest research station. 

Field trip through northern S v/eden, Finla nd ajid Norway % 

After returning to Gallivare 'by train we took a hus to Vittangi 
where we spent the night. From there we went on in a car rented from the 
local government agency, accompanied hy llr, Uno Lindstedt v/ho v.'as a forester 
and supervisor of the Lapps in the farthest north Lappmark of Sv;eden. 

Our first stop was at a,n old kiln where tar was extracted from pine 
logs. Y/c v;ere shown a pile of chips which v/ere fort3" years old and shov/ed no 
rot whatsoever, I was unahle to determine whether they did not rot "because of 
the tar in them or the dry weather. We stopped several times to examine winter 
rajige locations for reindeer, the last stop being beside the farthest north 
pine stand in Sv/edcn. I was surprised at the heavj"" lichen grazing that they 
considered to be auite normal and not ai: all over-grazed. 

Driving on vre crossed a river into Finland and stopped to examine a 
swamp where perma-frost had built up large mounds in the muskeg. Single rein- 
deer Y/ere seen occasionally by the road. We stopped to talk Y/ith some Lapps 
in a roadside encampment. They seemed remarkably like our Indians in habits 
although there v/as little similarity in looks. They ranged from blond to black 
in hair colour. There v/ere little or no mongoloid features. They all dressed 
in their native costumes v/ith many bright red articles of clothing. Like our 
Indians they live in tepees v/ith a fire in the middle and beds around it. The 
smoke escapes through the usual hole at the top. There are moccasins and 
knives and v/ooden cups for sale at the roadside stands. Even the dogs look 
much like our huskies. 

We 'Stopped at Kilpisjarvii about 10 p.m. Y/ell before sundoY.'no The 
next morning \7C drove on and soon left the low rolling countrj^ interspersed SY/amps v/hich was Finland for the mountains of the Norwegian coastline. 
Even here, far beyond the arctic circle, timbering v/as in progress on the 
mountain sides, Y/o came dovm to the sea at Lyngen Fjord and folloY/ed the road 
around a bay and out a long peninsula. Here in the mountains ?/e came to a, 
small Lapp encampment Y/ith several wooden houses and tents. Since Vaej 
belonged to Ivh?. Lindstedt 's area in v/inter, v/e stopped for a fexj hours to talk 
v/ith them. Leaving the car at a place called Svensby v/e v/alked upv/ard to a 
peculiar open park-like stand of tv/isted birches aboLit 30 ft, high. Underfoot 
it 7/as so Y/et v/e had to take off our shoes and stockings despite the fact that 
it v/as on aboiit a 45 angle. After examining the grasses under these trees it 
v/as decided that Vaej were not of the right type for good summer range. 

- 19 - 

When v/e passed through the tree belt we came out on to a less 
inclined grassy plain which was just as wet. Beyond in the distance stood the 
grey snow capped mountains. All the mountains we had seen to this point v/ero 
y\rGll treed to a certain height, then covered with lesser vegetation up nearly 
to the snowline. These mountains, however, vrcre only bare grey rock, I was 
told that the reindeer v/ould be high up in the mountains even going on to the 
sno'vvy areas of the glacier caps in the daytime to keep cool. Although the 
reindeer grazed along all the other mountain sides in their journey, this -was 
the ultimate summer range. After looking the place over as much as possible 
wdthout going into the mountains, we returned to the car and drove back to 
Kilpisjarvii for the night. 

The follomng day we drove back into Sweden to examine the v/intering 
range of the same herd which v^'o had been following into the mountains. We 
also looked over several places whore aerial spraying had- been used to kill 
deciduous trees and discussed the possible effects on Vvdldlife, 

During the trip v/c had several discussions concerning reindeer in 
general and the Niels Blink herd which we were following in particular. Wo 
vrere told that it took one week to move the reindeer from their mnter range 
in Sweden to a summer range in Norway, but that it took eight weeks to bring 
them back. The total distance was 350 to 400 kilometres (217-240 miles). The 
herd is made up of a little over 2,000 animals, possibly 2,300, They 
considered this to be a smaller herd than usual for a Lapp to own. They said 
that he started tvirelve years ago irith about 200 animals. They also indicated 
that it was possible to change the habits of reindeer. It took one man three 
years to change his ajiimals from the habit of migrating to the mountains to 
that of staying in the forest range all year round. 

In answer to my question they told me something of the economics of 
reindeer herding. Reindeer regularly have one young per year, the increase 
being about 2^fo of the herd. About half of the yearling females can bear 
calves and almost all of the two year olds do so. They continue to have calves 
up to nine or ten years old a,nd occasionally to sixteen years. With 10/^ males 
and 90^ females they can get 45/^ of '^^ls cows to have calves. In the vd.ld about 
15/'3 of the cows have calves. The increase of the winter adult population of a 
domestic herd is 40/^3. The best proportion for a tame herd is about 20^ bulls 
and 805!^ cows. This is to provide a safety margin over the 10/^ that would be 
sufficient and also to include some young animals for the future. The animals 
which are not kept as breeders are castrated for v/ork or butchered. In order 
to have 50 males five or six years of age it is necessary to have 100 at three 
or four years. In wild herds the sex ratio is normally 5O-5O, Mr, Skuncke 
felt that vvlld herds should have at least 30^ bulls. Butchering is carried out 
in the fall from October through November and December, 

Snov/ depth has a considerable effect on reindeer. One metre of snow 
produces difficult conditions for mountain reindeer. Forest reindeer v/ill not 
even dig through that much. 

- 20 - 

Ro_in_dee_r__ P_ara_s_ite_s and Diseases s 

Miile in Stockholm I enq.uired of tlie veterinarian associated mth 
the Research Station about diseases of reindeer in Sweden, He stated that of 
the four major insect pests, mosquitoes, black flies, hot flies and warble 
flies, only the last two do very much damage to the animals. Reindeer are 
very much afraid of bot flies and warble flies and vdll not eat v/hen they are 
in the neighbourhood. It is estimated that betv/een one and two million 
Sv/edish Kroner ($200,000 - t400,000) a year were lost due to these tv/c 
insects slov/ing growth and destroj'^ing hides. He added that about 90^ of the 
hides of Swedish reindeer v/ere damaged by warble fly larvae. The warble flies 
attack the animals from the middle of June to the middle of September, They 
are specific for the reindeer, the warble flies on cattle being a different 

A disease which has been affecting reindeer periodically for a long 
time broke out again this summer. Caused by Pasteurella multoc ida it begins in 
calves but also spreads to adults. The lesions described to me v/ere septicemia 
and bronchio pneumonia in subacute cases. The organizmi can be isolated from 
the liver or spleen. In 1912 to 1913 the same disease was present in southern 
Lapland, At the time I5OO reindeer v/ere lost the first year and I6OO the 
second year. This summer 200 or 300 v/ere lost in the north of Jamtland, There 
was also a disease in Jamtland in the early thirties that was not diagnosed and 
may have been the same thing. It is a summer disease only and they suspect that 
it is transmitted by mice. It is also found in cattle, hares, etc., as 
hemorrhagic septicemia, but it has not been found in moose. 

Another reindeer disease that they have had in the past is foot rot, 
caused by Sp he r op hor u s necrophorus more commonly called Actinomyces ne crophorus 
in I^Iorth America. It is spread by walking on ground infected by diseased 
animals and is eliminated by thinning out the herd and placing corrals on high 
places. They have also infected reindeer experimentally v/ith foot and mouth 
disease. It is present in Russian reindeer nov/ but it has not been found in 

Rein deer in JTory/ay and Finla nd s 

I Vv^as unable to discover the total number of reindeer in-Nor'way, 
However, it is estimated that there are 30,000 wild reindeer alone, all 
situated south of Trondheim, There are three large areas and some smaller 
ones where reindeer can be hunted, nearly all on crov/n la.nd. In the area 
where the wild and tame reindeer meet, the v/ild ones are spreading north and 
breaking up some of the southernmost tamo herds. 

An area just south of Trondheim is causing considerable controversy 
betv/een sportsm.en and government biologists. The sportsmen's association 
estimates that in the Trondheim band 10,000 reindeer are now present. 
Governm.ent officials on the other hand place the figure at 6,000 to 7 5 000, 
The sportsmen's association claims that the winter range is already pressed 
and cites as evidence the fact that tame reindeer calves weigh I8 to 20 kilo- 
grammes (40-44 lbs„) on the Is-^ Beptomb:,r -..-'hilc -..lid calves v;eigh only seven to 

- 21 - 

ten kilogrammGS (l5~22 lbs„). The sportsmen loelieve that the lower vi^eight of 
the v/ild calves is due to a shortage of food on the overcrowded range o 

Since the government "biologists feel that the reindeer numbers are 
low thoy restrict hunting methods. Only 1,000 animals are allowed to be shot 
each year. Since the sportsmen's associa-tion considers that the reproduction 
of the herd is 25/^, they feel that this number should be increased. The rein- 
deer are stalked by one or tv/o men on foot. They are only allowed to have one 
shot in their guns, the guns being locked by the police. They must have a 
minimum area of IjOOO decares (25O acres) per reindeer shot. The sportsmen 
feel that all these restrictions are not only unnecessary but harmful to the 
herd. Thus we have an argument between sportsmen and government officials 
that is almost exactly the reverse of the most frequent arguments on this 

In Finland the position of reindeer is more like that in Sv/eden. 
They are not considered to be game animals although there may be a few wild 
ones along the eastern boundary of Finland where they nave immigrated from 


General Biology 

Description ; 

Since all noose belong to one holarctic speciesj that is a species 
v/hich is circumpolar in distribution there is every reason to believe that the 
Swedish "elg" v/ould be quite similar to Ontario moose. This deduction v/as 
soon borne out by my observations. While driving along a bush road with 
Dr. Hoglund near Boda on the evening of September 5"^^^ ^ "^'^^s, fortunate in 
seeing what appeared to be a yearling co\r run off the road into the vraods. It 
was dark brown in colour and it impressed me mainly as being smaller in size 
and possibly with shorter legs than the Ontario moose. This impression was 
strengthened by a cov/ and calf which were seen v/hile hunting near Solleftea on 
September 7th and by several moose seen after they wore shot by other hunters. 

In order to confirm my impressions, I made inquiries aboiit the 
v>reights of Swedish moose. Unfortunately the information I obtained is of less 
value than it might have been due to my neglect to establish '.vhat kind of 
\7eights were being quoted, I believe that in most cases the hog dressed 
weight, that is the v/hole animal v/ithout entrails was the one used, 
¥x, Wallerstedt of the Sv/edish Hunting Society informed me that one of the 
biggest bulls kno^/n Vv-eighod 470 kilogrammes (l,036 lbs,). Another was 
reported as v/eighing 550 kilogrammes (l,212 lbs,) but this one was not 
confirmed. An average bull would ?/eigh about 300-310 kilogrammes (about 66O- 
680 lbs,). By comparison the largest moose weighed by Peterson (l955) o^^ 
St, Ignace Island, Ontario, was 1,177 lbs. Although this is very little 
different from the Sv/edish maximum weight it v/ould appear that our average 
weight is higher than that in Sv/eden running around 8OO or 9OO lbs. 

- 22 - 

lire Ack.'rinan gave me some additional information on Sv/edish moose 
v/oiglitso Hg stated that out of 25O moose shot last year (l958) i^ southern 
Sv/eden the largest v/eighod 236 kilogrammes (520 lbs . ) » However, he claimed 
that this animal would only he three years old and that 10 years ago the best 
moose wore around 300 kilogrammes (66O IbSo). It may be that Swedish moose 
are not really as much smaller than Ontario moose as is thought, the 
differences being made up largely in the young age of the moose in Sweden and 
possibly in shorter lGgs„ 

In Norway Ifc, Knut Rom informed me that a calf would v/eigh about 
50-60 Ibso at hunting season in early September. IflXo Arnc Krafft stated that 
on the pulp company land v;here he v/orks a short distance north of Oslo the 
average dressed weight last year was about 200 kilograrmnes (about 440 lbs.) 
for bulls and I70 kilogrammes (375 lbs,) for cov/s. The biggest bull shot in 
this area, over v/hich he has authority to weigh all moose, v/as 310 kilogrammes 
(683 IbSo). Thus Norwegian moose seem to be much the same size as Swedish 

Another difference betv/een Scandinavian moose and moose from Ontario 
was in their antlers. The largest trophy antlers that I sav/ in Svreden 
although very regular and pleasing to look at impressed me as being about the 
size of those of a four year old bull in Ontario, The young age of the moose 
probably has something to do with the general small size of antlers in the 
south of Sweden but it v/ould hardly prevent occasional large ones in the north, 

libc, Ackerman commented that moose antlers in southern Sweden were 
normally not larger than the horns of the barn-yard cow due to the average low- 
age of the animals. This was considered to be a serious problem in southern 
Sweden and there was much discussion about methods of allowing some bulls to 
reach a mature age, A set of antlers tha.t I saw in Oslo were larger than any 
seen in Sweden but still only reached what v;ould be considered an above 
average size in Ontario, 

Another problem much discussed in Sweden Avas the shape of the 
antlers. Especially where heavy hunting presuure was continual, there seemed 
to be an increasing proportion of the herd with the so-called "tine" antlers 
and these v/ere considered to be of inferior qu.a,l±tj for trophies to the 
palmate antlers. There was much talk of trying to encourage hunter selection 
to reduce themo The increasing number of tine antlers was believed to be due 
to the hunter preference for palmate type antlers over long periods of time. 
It was also suggested that the tine type weromiOre successful in fights. 
Although there is little evidence of tinod antlers even existing in Ontario at 
the present time it is quite possible ths.t hunting over prolonged periods 
might bring about an increase in this less desirable form, Hov/over, there 
would have to be a great increase of hunting pressure before it would have ci,ny 
considerable influence on the herd. 

Habits s 

There seem to be some differences in habits between Swedish moose 
and moose in Ontario, From v/hat I could understand moose in Sweden do not 
depend on vmter plants for summer food supplies. Although Skuncke states that 

- 23 - 

mooso axe generally associated \vith damp ground tliey do not seem to be nearly 
as aquatic in habits as our moose in Ontario, This may be only a reflection 
of the sxnaller amount of water available in Sweden, but I v/as given to under- 
stand thcl't they did not malce much use of the lakes that v/ere present. 

Another difference in habits between Sv/edish moose and m.oose in 
Ontario is that the former seem to come into the open much more frequently in 
order to graze on farmers grain crops. This is a very serious problem in 
Sweden and would indicate a grazing habit that is not found in Ontario. It 
was mainly oats that were affected. Apparently there had been sufficient 
agitation by farmers to bring about the pajnnent of damages out of funds 
collected from tho sale of hunting licences. It v/as not possible to collect 
for forest damage, only for damage to farmers crops. 

A third habit that seemed to be different from Ontario moose had to 
do with mating. The Sv/edish hunters were most interested and surprised to 
hear of the Canadia.n method of hunting moose by calling them with the birch- 
bark horn. Upon further enquiries about Swedish moose I v/as informed that 
they v/ere very seldom heard to call in autumn. Several hunters had never 
heard them at all and others had heard them occasionally but said they made 
very little noise. This might be a reaction to the intensive hunting in 
Sweden but at any rate it seemed quite different from the case in Ontario, 

Habitat s 

Considerable speculation has arisen in Ontario regarding moose 
habitat in Sv/eden as this could be a reason for their high numbers. In the 
north of Sv/eden much of the country is v/ooded and conditions for moose seem 
quite similar to those in Ontario, There were possibly more scattered farms 
than in northern Ontario and more human activity in the form of towns and 
roads. The major difference however, was in the species of trees. The Scotch 
pine in Sweden seems to take the place of both jackpine and black spruce in 
Ontario, The only other major conifer in Sweden is the Norway spruce. The 
Scotch pine could be seen not only on sandy uplands but also in the sv/amps. 
This seemed to me to be a major difference from the standpoint of moose 
because of their great preference for Scotch pine. It v/as as if black spruce 
had suddenly become the favourite food of moose in northern Ontario. The 
Scotch pine v/as a very vrid&lj distributed tree species and at the same time a 
major moose food. The nearly unproductive black spruce sv/amps in Ontario are 
thus replaced in Sv/eden by areas v/ith favourable food plants. 

In southern Sweden an ideal interspersion between fields and forests 
resulted from the farming methods. There are many rocky outcrops in southern 
Sweden so that tho farm fields are mostly irregular in shape. There are small 
stands of v/oods here and there around the out croppings v/ith the fields curving 
in and out around them. The result is a verj'- great distribution of forest 
edge. This undoubtedly adds to their problem of moose eating oats because of 
the close proximity of forest and field but it also means that moose 
living in a habitat in v/hich food supplies and shelter are almost ideally 
intermixed o Very heavy hunting of m.oose occurs in parts of southern Sweden 
which seemed very similar to southern Ontario in forest type. Some of the 

- 24 - 

northern conifers are replaced Toy hardv/oods such as oaks and heeches and the 
climate seemed not unlike that of southern Ontario, They have about 800 milli- 
metres of precipitation a year of which much is snov/ which melts quickly in 
winter time c It v/as my opinion that this interspersion in the south coupled 
v/ith the prevalence of pines in the north v/as the major reason for the high 
production of moose in Sweden. 

Pood Hahitss 

Except for the reduced aquatic vegetation in the diet and the 
addition of grazing in the fields, the food hahits of moose in Sweden seemed 
quite similar to those in Ontario, Scotch pine seemed to be the major food 
species followed by aspen and birch. Other hardwood species although of lesser 
importance made up a significant percentage of the food eaten. Moose browsing, 
or as they call it "moose damage", in Sweden looked very similar to what I had 
been used to seeing throughout northern Ontario. 

In Norway Mr, Arne Kraffthas been doing some work on determining food 
habits. He has been following fresh moose tracks in the vdnter on skiis and 
counting the tv/igs browsed. So far he has only counted numbers of twigs but he 
is planning to measure the diameter of the part that is left and compare it 
'with similar twigs which he v\rill weigh to determine the weight of browse eaten 
by the moose. He hopes to get both the species eaten and the amounts eaten, 
Mr, Kraft stated that in the jackpine forest type moose eat pine, juniper, some 
birch and mountain ash. In the spruce forest type they eat birch, willov/, 
mountain ash, alder and some pine and juniper. When I mentioned that birch v/as 
a major food in Ontario he stated that the moose there prefer willow and 
mountain ash to birch in the spruce forest and Juniper communis in the pine 
forest. He thus confirmed ray opinion that food habits of Sv/edish moose v/ere 
similar to those of moose in Ontario, 

Moose Hunting 

History of Hunting in Sv/eden ? 

As in Britain hunting in the middle ages v/as reserved for royalty in 
Sweden. Commoners v/ho owned taxable land were given the right to hunt on their 
own property by Gustav III in 1789» This ordinance was not ratified until I8O8 
at which time the vihole population took up moose hunting until moose v/ere faced 
v/ith extinction a fev/ decades later, A ten year closed season allov/cd some 
recovery but in I836 hunting again endangered the moose. The Sv/cdish 
Sportsmen's Association vi/hich v/as formed in I83O began a continuous compaign 
for shorter seasons. In I89O a lav/ v/as passed forbidding the shooting of 
calves and this v/as made countryv/ido in 1912, The season v/as eventually 
reduced to its present six days. By the 1920' s the moose population was again 
steadily building up. Fo one has been able to explain the continued increase 
which is very similar to the one we have seen in Ontario. The increasing moose 
herds have done more and more damage to farmers crops and forest regeneration 
until special seasons have had to be declared to reduce the numbers in trouble 
areas. They now have combined the open season over the entire country with 
special seasons in some places. 

- 25 - 

The general season is only a few days long and varies with the 
locality. In Angermanland Province which is about halfway up the eastern side 
of Sv/edcn the season is four days long. Straight west from there is Jamtland 
it is seven days long, while farther north it is onlj two days. In this season 
everyone who has hunting rights and a licence can go and shoot as many moose as 
he is ahlo, No calves arc allowed to be shot during the general season except 
in Jamptland. 

The special season again varies Y\dth the locality. It is a split 
season Vvdth a, total length of twenty days in Angerraanland Province, about ten 
days are allowed in September and another ten days in October vdth the mating 
season between the two hunting seasons. In this special season an established 
number of adults and calves may be shot on each area where the season applies. 
The number is obtained by taking 30^ of the estimated population on the area. 
In some parts of southern Svv'eden there is a thirty-day special season and some 
pulp companies v/here damage is particularly severe have the right to shoot 
moose all v;inter. This right is not very enthusiastically exorcised, however, 
because the Sv/edes prefer to hunt moose for sport in the regular seasons. 

In Norway the season this year is from September 27th to October 10th 
which includes the rutting season. I received the impression that this was 
fairly standard over southern Norway, but it may vary v/ith the locality. 

Licencing and Enforcement s 

Everyone hunting moose in Sv/eden must buy a 10 Kroner ($2.00) licence. 
About 250,000 of these licences are purchased each year, usually from the local 
post offices. Since the licences also cover other kinds of hunting the Svrodes 
estimate that about 200,000 of them are actually used for moose hunting. An 
additional 50 ICronor (SlO.OO) fee must be paid for each moose shot. The licence 
is actually a licence to carry a gun. It does not entitle the holder to hunt 
unless he either owns, rents or is invited to a hunting area. Enforcement of 
the laws is by regular police assigned to this special duty. 

In Norway similar regulations are in force. To shoot a moose the 
following licences are required^ 10 Kroner licence ($1.25) to the Governm.ent 
v/hich is handed back to the m;inicipalit.y„ A 10 Kroner licence to carry a frun 
and a 30 Kroner ($4«25) fee for each moose shot. Enforcement in Norway is by 
county police, I v/as informed that it v/as not a very active enforcement but 
that there was not much illegal hunting due to the great interest taken by the 
local sport smcns clubs and local people in general. 

Hunting re as 

There is no such thing as an "open" moose hunting area in Sv/eden. 
Even State land is closed to everyone except the forest workers who are 
allowed to hunt on it. This is partly because State areas are not very 
extensive. Wildlife belongs to the landovmer. If anyone shoots a moose on 
someone elses pi'operty it is just as much a theft as if it were a domestic 
cow. The landowner has the right to hunt himself, invite in friends, rent 
his land to other hunters or join v/ith other farmers in makiing a larger hunting 

- 26 - 

area. There is no trespass l&vf in the forest. He cannot stop people entering 
his forest unless they are huntingo He can stop them from entering his fields. 
Pulp companies can close their roads on timher holdings but they cannot prevent 
entry on foot. 

For a private individual to hunt, he must own some land, rent a 
hunting area from a landovraer, or he invited "by a landov/ner or renter to hunt. 
He would usualljr find out about places being for rent by advertisements in 
local papers. He then goes to the landowner and makes an offer. If it is 
satisfactory he gets the hunting rights for- that area and can invite as monj 
friends as he wants to join him in the hunt, as long as they are all properly 
licenced, CX'-er most of Sweden it seems that nearly every man has a brother, 
uncle or a friend v;ho ovms or rents a hunting area. 

In Norway also it is necessary to rent a hunting area. Prices range 
up to 1,000 to 2,000 Kroners (:'|140-|280), The areas are rented by means of 
closed bids and may vary from 500 acres to 4? 000 acres in size. 

Moose Management 

Moose damage s 

As mentioned previously farmers could collect compensation for moose 
damage to their fields. This did not mean that there was no problem in the 
forest. Moose damage in Sv/edish forests seemed tvobe much more severe- than in 
Ontario for several reasons? A major commercial species, Scotch pine, was also 
a preferred food of moose. Moose populations were higher and forest management 
is much more intensive. In some areas- that I v/as shov/n v/here foresters v.^ere 
trying for regeneration of Scotch pine, moose browsing seemed to have seriously 
affected about half of the regeneration. Many of the trees eaten were on 
plantations or on areas where some silvicultural practice v/as being followed to 
promote regeneration and where thinnings and prunings were planned for the 
future. This meant that any single tree eaten vfas a much greater loss of 
investment than under the extensive forestry practices in mxost of Ontario, As 
a result moose damage to forests and possible methods of alleviating it provide 
vfidespread topics of conversation in both Sweden and Norway, 

Control or remedj'- was attempted by means of the various special 
seasons in the v/orst troubled areas and by alloviring the farmers or woods 
companies affected to shoot moose throughout much of the year. These practices 
seemed to be fairly satisfactory. Some forest companies attempted to offset 
the damage by moose with the revenue obta,ined by renting their lands for 
hunting. It seemed that the majority just isn?ote it off as loss and tried to 
keep the moose population v/ithin reasonable bounds. 

Census and allovifable kills 

In Sweden each of the small organizations of farmers must report the 
number of moose on their area during the winter. Owners of private property 
and pulp company officials also have to report to the county organization of 
the National Hunting Society, This estimate is obtained by counting tracks in 

- 27 - 

the snow. The counting is carried out by local farmers, foresters and other 
people thoroughly familiar vdth their o-vvn areas. Each man gives an estimate of 
the number of moose on 1,000 to 5? 000 hectares (about 4-20 square miles). If 
the figures presented seem reasonable to the countj-^ organization a special 
season can be declared and the allowable kill ca-lculated as 30^j of the 
population estimate. 

In Norway a. local committee of five men is elected, three by the 
county council, one by the forest ovmcrs and one by the farm ov/ners. These 
committees decide on the numbers of moose, the damage to the forest and the 
necessity of v/inter feeding. They also determine the numbers of moose to be 
shot and the number of acres per moose that Y/ill be allowed. This last item 
refers to a system v/hereby the country is divided into areas on each of v/hich 
one moose can be shot. These areas can sometimes be combined for hunting 
purposes, but never more than six together. The o^vners within any one area may 
either shoot the moose on it or rent out the area to someone else. Returns are 
divided among the farmers according to the size of their farms. The size of 
the area on which one moose may be shot depends on the kind of countr^^. In 
poor moose range they are larger than in good moose range. They may vary from 
500 acres to 4j000 acres, Jih*. Knut Rom thought that the Government was 
inclined to divide the countiy into equal units to avoid quarrelling but he felt 
that the proportional division was better and that the Government was coming to 
hold the same opinion. 

The method of counting by the use of tracks in Norway was somewhat 
more formally organized than in Sweden. It v/as called circular counting, 
Mr, Rom stated that in a locality v/here old hunters had estimated 35 "i^o 50 
moose 122 v/ere counted by this method. The counts are made during March and 
April, Each forest district is divided into counting compartmonts. Each 
person is given one compartment to count although if the area is a large one 
more than one man may bo used. The size of the compartment varies vdth the 
density of moose in the area. The men doing the counting have been living in 
the same place for m.any years and are familiar with both the country and the 
moose. They may be loggers, foremen of forest companies, farmers or wood- 
workers. The area is first circled and all tracks noted. It is then criss- 
crossed and the tracks and moose on it recorded. Time of observation, sex and 
age of any moose soon are taken for later comparison v/ith neighbouring 
compartments, finally the area is circled once more and any new tracks 
crossing the ski trail are noted. The forester who has cha,rge of the forest 
management on the area is then responsible for combining the various counts, 
Mr, ICraft stated that this method v/as first used in 1945 and that thoj have 
dene it each winter for the past three years. He said that the counts v/ere 
consistent and increasing. He believed that this method gives them a very 
accurate estimate of the numbers of moose on the ez-ea. 

Population and Production Figures ; 

The country of Sv/eden and the Proid-nce of Ontario are roughly 
comparable with regard to flora, fauna, and climate. It would seem v/orthwhile, 
therefore, to compare the moose production figures for the two countries. 
According to a 1958 world atlas, the area of Sweden is 173,194 square miles 
./hile that of Ontario is 363,282 square miles. The human population of Sweden 

- 28 - 

in I95S '^'^2.3 a.'bout seven million while that of Ontario v/ac about five milliono 
The estimates of total numbers of moose ?/ere about 90? 000 for Sv/eden and about 
125}000 for Ontario. This is at a rate of one moose per 1,9 square miles for 
Sweden and one moose per 2,4 square miles for Ontario, Although these figures 
indicate that the production per unit area is lower in Ontario, they arc not 
really comparable since unknovm proportions of farm land^ muskeg, etc, are 

In view of the above figures , the numbers of hunters in the tvro 
countries are quite surprising. In I9585 there \rere 200,000 moose hunters in 
Sweden, while the number of hunters for the same year on Ontario v\fas only 
26,295^ I^ Sweden, these hunters shot 30,400 moose, while in Ontario they shot 
only 7 J 386 moose. This means that the percentage hunter success for Sweden was 
15 « 2 as compared mth 28,1 for Ontario. The lower hunter success figure for 
Sweden is probably a normal result of the laxger number of hunters. Success 
always goes dovm as the number of hunters increases. The astonishing fact is 
that with only about half the land area and v/ith a little larger human 
population, the Sv/edes are shooting nearly five times as many moose as we are 
in Ontario, 

The highest density of moose knov/n to exist in Ontario is 2,8 moose 
per square mile on a 25 square mile plot surveyed from the air. This was a 
most unusual incidence of v>^inter moose concentration and a more normal figure 
might be one moose per 2-3 square miles. In order to get a better idea of 
the production per unit effort in Sv^'^eden than the total figures could give, I 
enquired of several men hov/ many moose were produced on the areas v/ith which 
they were familiar. 

In the north of Sweden in Angermanland Province, Mr. Hamilton gave me 
some population figures for a. pulp and paper company limits. The estimated 
population at present v/as six moose per 1,000 hectares (l.5 moose per square 
mile). The company officials would like to reduce this population to about tv/o 
moose per 1,000 hectares (l moose per 2 square miles) to minimize the damage 
they do toforcst reproduction. It would appear that Swedish moose densities 
of this sort would not be extraordinary in Ontario, but the average density 
would probably be higher. 

In southern Sv/edon, Mr. AckermoAi gave rac some figures on moose kills. 
He stated that in 1957 on 200,000 hectares (about 770 square miles) 6OO moose 
vfere shot (one m.oose per 1.3 square miles). He considered this to be over 30/^0 
of the herd and v/as not surprised v;hen the harvest in 195^ dropped to 5OO moose 
(one m.oose per 1,5 square miles), Cn his ov/n hunting area of 400,000 hectares 
(15.4 square miles) Ivir, Ackerman has a quota of seven adults and three calves 
in the thirty-day special season. This is at a. rate of one moose per I.5 
square miles. These production figures seem considerably higher than in 

Mr<. Ackerman \-ra.s among those who estimated the total moose population 
for Sweden at 90,000, This figure, I believe, v/as obtained on the logic that a 
third of the moose were shot. Since this was known to be 30,400, the total 
population must be about three times that much. It was argued by several 
people that the Sv/edish population figures must be accurate since the quotas 

- 29 - 

set from them led to a proper harvest. It is quite possible, however, for tv;o 
v/rongs to make a right. It could ea,sily he that the total population vras 
higher than they thought and the percentage shot lov/ero This v/ould let results 
come out correctly v/ithout having the proper figure for the total number of 
moose o This would a.ccount for the fact that although the harvest figures for 
some areas arc so high the populeition estimates are not so much higher than in 

In Norway on 9jOOO shooting units allowing one moose per unit 6,600 
moose were shot for the last tvra years or 73.3^ of the allowable harvest. The 
pulp company for vmich ¥\Xo Krafit v/orks has holdings totalling about 400 square 
kilometres or about I50 square miles. About 100 hunters took 55 cnoose off 
this area in 1958 ^or a success of about 55/'^'' This is at a rate of one moose 
per 2,7 square miles. They had permission to take 63 moose off the same area 
so the actual take was 87.3?^ of the allowable take. This v/ould have been at 
the rate of one moose per 2,4 square miles. The pre-hunting population was 
calcula,tcd as seven to eight moose per ten square kilometres (l,8 moose per 
square mile to 2,1 moose per square mile). It appears from this that the 
total population would be about 300 moose and, therefore, the proper percentage 
to be shot was considered as about 20^, In one area south of Hurdal La,ke 
40 moose were counted on 20 square kilometres last April, (50I moose per square 
mile on a 7»7 so^uare mile area). The count of moose this past v/intar v/as five 
to six moose per ten square kilometres (l,3 moose per square mile to 1,6 moose 
per square mile) over the whole of the compan^r limit. This v/ould be considered 
a very high moose population in Ontario. Mr. Kraft rates his area as below 
average moose habitat for Norv/ay, 

In Finland the total moose population was estimated at about 25,000 
to 30,000 moose. Of this number about 5 » 000 moose are shot each year. The 
moose density is highest along the south-v/est coast of Finland adjoining 
Sv/eden, These population figures are based on estimates of increase, decrease 
or average numbers submitted by sportsmen and forest rangers from around the 

Additional Facts About Special Areas 

Southern Sweden 

Mr, who lives perhaps 50 miles v/est of Stockholm is an 
author, outdoor \rritev and v/orld v/idc hunter. As such he v/a,s very much 
interested in moose and their management in Sweden and was able to provide me 
v.dth some additional facts and opinions about the part of Sweden he knew best. 
When I enquired about his personal hunting areas and methods, he stated that his favourite dog he has shot 76 moose in the past five years. He 
indicated the value of moose hunting dogs by mentioning that he had turned dovm 
10,000 Kroners (S2,000) for his favourite hunting dog which is featiured in the 
pictiorcs of the book v/hich he helped to edit (Malm, Ackerman and Andreae, 1959)' 
He claimed that he usua,lly shoots about 25 moose each yea.r in various huntijig 

- 30 - 

When asked about population fig-ares, llr. Ackerman estimated that 
1,000 hectares of v/oodland v/ould produce ahout four moose (one moose per 
square mile). He v/ent on to state that he thought the small rem.nant red deer 
herd in southern Sv/eden should he encouraged, the reason being that, besides 
the fact that the red deer causes less damage to the forest than the moose, 
tv/enty red deer could be prodiiced per 1,000 hectares (5o2 deer per square 
mile), ?rom these figures he concluded that red deer could produce more kilos 
of meat per hectare than moose and with no damage to the forest other than to 
the bark of young spruce, 

Wtion questioned about his opinion of the present moose season in 
Sv/cden, LbTo Ackerman stated that he considered the over-all kill of moose in 
Sv/eden to bo about right. There v/ere some sections, hov/ever, where hunting was 
becoming too hea^^/". In particular he mentioned the area previously discussed 
where over ^Ofo of the herd v/as shot. He also stated that although the over-all 
kill v/as .a,bout right, in many places too many of the older animals were being 
eliminated. Not only did this mean very poor antlers but also a possibility of 
declining herd irLgor, Since few moose in the southern provinces live over 
t'rree years of age and, ha,ving in mind that both bulls and cows first breed in 
their second year, that is at 1-|- years old, it seemed logical to conclude that 
such very young animals would not be as aggressive as larger bulls. The result 
over manj^ years could be detrimental, lib?, Ackerman' s solution was to extend 
the special tj-pe of season. If this were done the shooting of calves could be 
specified in order to adjust the age distribution of the kill and to callow more 
pjiimals to reach an older age. 

In comparing the moose hunting production figures for Sv/eden with 
those v/hich I supplied for Ontario Mr. Ackerman expressed the opinion that the 
great network of roads and the v/idespread human population in Sv;eden v/ere major 
reasons for the higher annual kill there. His many comments on problems 
concerning all v/ild game showed a v/ide knov/ledge and appreciation of production 
figures and management problems as well as hunting and hunting methods. My 
short talk v/ith him v/as a most enjoyable and profitable one, 

Hurdal , Norv/ay g 

Mr. Arne Krafit had the most um.isual position of any man I met. He 
v;as v/ildlife biologdst for a pulp and paper companj'-e This company, the 
Sidsvold Vaerk, holds about 400 square kilometres (l54 square miles) of forest 
land. This they rent out to hunters on the theory'' that -moose shoiild be a part 
of the crop along with the trees. They have, therefore, set up hunting on a 
business basis and hired Mr, ICrafft to manage it. 

The forested districts each have a forest manager who is a graduate 
of a forestry school. The forest managers appoint a "hunting witness" from 
among their employees for each hunting party. He is paid by the hunters in 
money or m^eat along with his regular salary. His job is to see that hunting 
lav/s are obeyed and to control or carry out himself the weighing of all the 
moose shot. 

- 31 - 
The price charged to hunters last year v/as 600 Norwegian Kroner 

(ahout S85o) for a "bull or 400 Norv/Ggian Kroner (ahout 357 <•) for a cov^ 
1"2 years or oldoro Calves are protected hy law. When I expressed my curiosity 
as to the reason for the differential in price lir, Krafft replied that it was 
due to the fact that the meat is sold liy the hunters. Hence the bulls produce 
more meat and they are the most sought after^ The price of meat last year v/as 
5 lloTweglan Kroner per kilogramme dressed v/eight (about ,320 per lb,)<, 

Since there is no proscribed waj in which a landowner must conduct 
the hunting on his land, lib?, ICraijit has suggested some changes in the method of 
charging for use in the 1959 hunt., Hunters v/ill be charged the sale price of 
the meat calculated at the rate of 5 Kroner per kilogramme less 100 Kroner for 
each bull and 200 Kxoner for each cow. The main purpose of this change is to 
correct the sex balance of the herd which has been thro-.'/n off by years of 
preferential hunting for bulls. The new method v/ill mean that the hunter 
receives 100 Kroner for each bull that is shot and 200 Kroner for each cov/. 
The rest of the money from the sale of the animals goes to the company, 
Mr, KrafTt thinks that the hunters vrill like this arrangement. The huntsman 
will knov/ exactly how much his hunt v/ill cost since the sale of the meat v/ill 
exactly balance the cost charged by the company except for the 100 or 200 
Kroner v/hich are paid to him to help offset the cost of the hunt. At the sam.e 
time the company v/ill stand to profit since it will be getting an average of 
1,000 Kroner instead of 600 for a bull and 85O Kroner instead of 4OO for a gov/, 
Mr o Krafil: commented that it v/ould move hunting from the realm of the money 
making venture back to that of an outdoor sport. It seems to be a most radical 
and profitable idea for all concerned, 

Solleftea, ITorth-east Sv/eden ? 

Mr. Henning Hamilton a forester mth the Graninge--erken A.B, Pulp & 
Paper Company described to me a more common attitude on the part of the Pulp & 
Paper Company tov/ard moose hunting. On the 200,000 hectares (about 770 sq_uare 
miles) of woodland which they ov/n they do not rent any land to hunters. It is 
kept almost exclusively for their ov/n employees. There is one exception in 
that about 2^0 of the hunters are outside men who have been sold licences of 
10 Kroner for a hunting area of about 200 hectares or 50 Kronor for 2,000 
hectares of land, Even in this case the hunters often hunt v/ith company 
employees so it is aore of a licence than a land grant. The company makes no 
efiort to make m-oney on the moose hunt but it does collect one hind quarter 
from each moose killed v/hich is given av/ay for gooviv/ill. The company is quite 
happy to have the hunters remove the m.ooBe and thus reduce moose damage. To 
Jlr. Hamilton the hunting problems are onlj^ a small sideline to his general v/ork 
v/hich is in the field of silviculture and reforestation. However, the interest 
in moose hunting runs very high a,mong company employees and considerable 
organization is required to ensure an orderly and successful hunt, 

Pescription of Moose Hunting in Sv/eden 

Although many small variations in hunting methods may be found in 
different parts of Sv/eden there are two main divisions into which all Sv/edish 
moose hunting methods may be grouped. In the north dogs are used by the 

- 32 - 

hunters v/hile in the south dogs axe used only for trailing wounded animals 
while the hunt is conducted "by a drive method. When dogs are used they may he 
either on the leash or freOo Fortunately I was ahle to observe hoth of the 
major types of moose hunting heing carried ouo 

Northern Hunting With Dogs s 

The Swedish National Hunting Society arranged for me to go v.dth 
Mr, Eenning Hamilton to observe the hunt on the property of the Graninge'-'erken 
A. Be Pulp & Paper Company. Both the open season and the special season were 
begun in this area on Monday September T'th, The open season continued until 
Thursday September 10th while the special season ran until Saturday 
September 19th5 followed by an additional season from October 7th to 17th, 
Seven men took part in the hunt besides myself. They were a chief ranger, a 
woodlands manager, another company emploj^ee of unknovmi rank, a farmer who kept 
the dogs, two army officers who v/ere invited as friends and Mr, Hamilton, 
Although the area to be hunted v\ras only about 8,000 hectares in size (about 
31 square miles) the hunters complained that they did not have enough men to 
properly conduct the hunt. They said that the previous year they had had 15 
men in the party and that the smaller number of hunters v^^ould allow moose to 
slip through the line. 

Moose hunting .in northern Sweden begins amid a spirit of festivity. 
For about tvro weeks before the hunt many of the men were talking about plans 
and looking forv/ard to their annua.l vacation, I was informed several times 
that it was "like Christmxas" to them. It v/as one of the big celebrations of 
the year. 

Despite the partying hov/ever, our party was up at 4 a,m, on the 
opening day. Although we only took time for a hurried cup of coffee and some 
hard bread before hurrying to the hunt v/e could hear other hunters already on 
adjoining hunting areas when we drove to our ovm, A map 'was produced and 
several minutes v/ere taken up with discussing strategy'". Finally we entered the 
cars and drove dov.Ti some small company haul roads. At intervals the man 
directing the hunt would indicate where a hunter was to get off and v/c v/ould 
drive on. The hunters were placed so that they v/ere just out of sight of each 
other along the road,. Usually a corner ore a hill separated them. By th>:} time 
all had been situated the dog handler was a.lready on his way to the other side 
of the area to be hunted with his dog. 

During the first drive T took my place as a hunter « About half-an- 

hour after starting I had the good fortune to see a cov; and a calf cross the 

road, Hov/ever, I was unable to get a shot away and the next ma,n in line had 
the misfortune to have his gun jam. 

After the first couple of drives we stopped for coffee and again at 
noon v/e gathered by a small fire. The first dog was so tired from running by 
this time that it lay flat on its side at every opportunity. During lunch two 
policemen drove up and stopped for coffee. They were dressed in peak caps and 
blue overalls. After discussing the hunt generally and joining us in coffee 
they asked the hunters for their licences. These v/ere readilj'- produced and 
with farev/ell waves they continued on their way. If the uniforms and language 
had been different the "whole episode could have taken place in Ontario, 

- 33 - 

After lunch I joined IvItc Hamilton with a fresh dog to see how the 
other end of the hunt v/as conducted. The Swedish "Slghund" or "moose dog" 
looks quite like the North American husky "but is a fully recognized and 
registered "breed » There arc several different kinds of dogs such as the grey 
dog and the Jamt dog (from Jamtland) and the smaller Lapp dog one of which we 
were using. The dogs are usually grey or black in colour ¥/ith erect ears and 
tail curled over the "back. The head looks a little like that of a German 
Shepherd but with a shorter nose. The dogs seem mild in disposition and very 
keen on the hunt. The many moose dogs ¥/hich I saw while in Sweden were all 
either tied or on leash except when in the actual business of hunting or 
released for a short frolic. 

Upon entering the woods from a road the dog v/as released from the 
leash to range at '/vill. It started dovm what seemed to be an old trail but 
soon turned off, I found that the dog handler merely walked forward slowly 
while the dog ranged back and forth in front of him much in the manner of a 
bird dog. Although the hunters were posted around the area to get anj moose 
that were flushed out this was not the primary purpose of the hunters. The 
ultimate in Swedish moose hunting is v/hen the dog catches the moose. If the 
moose is a cow or a young animal it usually just runs out to the v/aiting 
hunters but if it is a mature bull it \7ill often turn and try to attack the 
dog. The dog then circles it barking furiously and keeping just out of reach 
while the follov.dng hunter runs forv/ard at top speed towards the noise, 
IJsually the moose is too engrossed in trying to kill the dog to hear the 
a,pproach of the hunter and thus an easy prey. For a Swedish moose 
hunter all other methods of hunting moose are but poor substitutes for this 
one, the true sport , Unfortunately I was not able to see this drama first hand. 
Through a freak of chance all the moose shot by our party v;ere cows and calves. 
Thus there was no opportunity for the dog to do its work. 

The hunt ^-vas much the same each day with only a change to new 
sections of the hunting area. The last da^;- provided variation in that v/e had 
to travel by boat. The weather v/as cold in the mornings 5 warming later in the 
day, much like a mid-October day in Ontario, Leaves v/ere still very much on 
the trees and the weather was for the most part sunny. The moose each day v/ere 
hung in a barn and rough dressed. They were later talcen into tovm and turned 
over to a butcher. A horse from the nearby farm was used to drag the moose 
from the woods in rno-ct oases, but the last day of the hunt they had to be ovA 
into quarters and carried out by the men. Even in Sweden moose hunting can be 
hard v/ork. As I remember it, the total success for our part3- was as follows - 
1st day a ccw and calf a,nd a second calf in the evening, 2nd day a single cow, 
3rd day a yearling cow sjid. two adult cows. Total count seven moose for seven 
men. This would not be the totoJ. harvest for this area as the later specip.,1 
season would see more hunting, 

S out "hern Sv/edon ; 

I was most fortunate in that the National Hunting Society v.-as able 
to arrange for me to observe the Royal moose hunt in southern Sweden, Although 
the present King does not hunt himself, the Royal Hunting Society com.posed of 
the most important men in the country ccrries on the hunt on the royal groi;nds. 

- 34 - 

Since the hunt was located quite near the gamekeepers school at Ostermalma I 
v:as instructed to contact the director of the school, Baron von Essen , and 
accompany him and his students to the hunt. 

The hunt "began at about 7 a»m, A'/ith the gathering and mutual 
greetings of the hunters. There were tvro main groups involved. The drivers 
were mainly students from the school "but included some local help. These 
num'bered a'boiit 30, The shooters were the mem"ber3 of the Royal Society also 
num"bering a"bout 30, A detailed map provided a schedule for the day's drives. 
Since the first one was to be at about 8 a,m. the shooters v/ere soon located 
in their line at previously built blinds which consisted of small piles of 
brush just big enough to hold one or tv/o shooters. Sharp at the appointed 
time the hunting horn of the drivers sounded to inform all that they v;ere on 
their v/ay. 

As the drive progressed hunters were kept informed of the position 
of the drivers by blasts on the horn, A series of parallel lines on the map times marked beside them allov/ed everyone to check as to whether the 
drivers were still on time. As they approached the lino of waiting hunters 
activity there increased, A hare dashed from the woods tov/ard us and then 
returned the way it came. To our left we saw Baron von Essen shoot a roe deer. 
To our right vye heard someone shooting at a moose. Some capercaillie and black 
game flev/ overhead. Finally the horn sounded quite near and a few minutes 
later we v;ere able to hear a continual ticking sound, A man came through the 
woods unhurriedly hitting two sticks together. Soon the v/hole line of drivers 
could be seen and the shooters began to emerge. 

After a brief conversation and examination of one of the do^^/med 
moose the cars were brought up by the chauffeurs and the party was moved to 
the next area. There was little spare time as the drives were scheduled close 
together. Again we all took our positions in the blinds and again the horn 
sounded for the beginning of another hunt. 

At noon a table was set up and y/rapped lunches were provided. As we 
ate and talked of the hunt a truck came by about four dressed moose from 
the morning's hunt on their way to the freezer. Later in the afternoon I also 
saw the horse that wa,s employed to pull the moose from the woods. The country 
where the hunting took place v;as southern mixed-wood type with hardv/oods and 
conifers in about equal proportions., Most of the blinds v/ere set up along the 
outside of small dirt roads. In each blind small finger signs pointed to the 
blinds on either side so tha.t the shooter would kno;v where not to shoot. I 
v/as unfortunate in not seeing any live moose for many wore shot during the day. 
As they were immediately picked up and taken away, I could not find out v/hat 
the total count v.^as. This is undoubtedly an excellent way to get a good 
harvest of moose and is well adapted for the men involved, many of whom were 
elderly and 7/ould not have been able to undertake the disoomfort of the more 
rugged form of hunting. Despite its obvious efficiency, however, several of 
the younger men informed me that it was not their idea of hov; moose should be 
hunted. Hunting vdth a dog still reigned supreme. 

- 35 - 


]?uropea.n red deer are larger than North AniGrican white-tailed deer 
hut considerahly smaller than their nearest North American relatives the elk or 
Y/apiti. There is variation in the size of red deer in different parts of 
Europe The sm.allest animals are in Scotland, v;hile the largest are in central 
Europe around southern Germany, Austria, Yugoslavia and Hungary, The' most 
important countries in my study of red deer were Scotland and Bavaria, Germany. 

Scot land s 

Very little is ahout red deor in Scotland considering their 
long proximity to outstanding scientists. Despite the fact that the British 
have done such excellent work on population studies, none of these methods has 
heen a.pplied to red deer populations. Two sources of information on red deer 
are availahle. One is the very thorough practical knowledge possessed hy the 
gamekeepers and stalkers of Scotland. The other is the work done by 
Dr. Eraser Darling, Dr, Darling estimated the numbers of deer in Scotland 
"before the war at a quart er-of~a-million animals. In 1949 he estimated that 
there were still half that number reraainingc The magnitude of the problem of 
overstocking ca,n be seen from Dr. Darling's estimate that the proper niimber of 
deer for optimum condition is 100,000, Hov; many deer there are now is anybodys 
guess. At a time v/hen the problem of red deer in Scotland is coming very much 
to the fore, they find themselves with little knowledge from which to work. 

There are two bright spots in the Scottish deer picture. One is the 
work of the Nature Conservancy and the other is the new lav/ just now going into 
effect. In the Nature Conservancy the man at present v;orking on red deer is 
Mr, P. Lowe, His main project is on the Isle of Rum off the west coast of 
Scotland. The limited area and absence of any trees on the island have allowed 
them to make a complete count of the numbers of deer. They know the herd so 
well that many of the deer are named and their feeding areas well knovm. A 
tagging programme for fawns captured at a young age helps in getting to know 
the individual animals. They have been forced by political considerations to 
reduce the deer herd rather than allovrLng it to build up to a peak as they had 
intended. They are trjlng census techniques on the known numbers of deer in 
the hope of finding a m.ethod that v.dll be applicable to the ref;.t of Scotland, 
They are also working- on an aging based on measurements on the length 
of tooth rev;, diapasm, and total length of jaw. We were able to see a few deer 
at a great distance in the high mountainrj of the v/estern highlands but because 
of the season of year and the shortage of time v/e were not able to see any 
close at hand. 

The new lav/ appears to be based to a large extent on recommendations 
by Dr, Darling in his paper to the United Nations Scientific Conference on 
conservation in 1949 o Prior to World War II hunting in Scotland vras regulated 
by a gentleman's agreement concerning the time and methods of hunting. Most 
hunting vras on private estates where the landlord would countenance no foolish- 
ness and v/here gamekeepers kept poaching to a lev/ level. After World War II 
with fewer men a-ble to afford gamekeepers and with an increased popularity for 
hunting in meat-starved Britain the situation got out of hand. Large private 
hunting lodges were turned into hotels and run by people who knev/ little of 

- 36 - 

deer and cared little for hunting traditions. Anyone who paid would ho 
accepted. At the same time the improved roads j increased motor travel, and 
high moat prices lead to organised commercial poaching on a large scale, With 
no laws regulating the seasons or night shooting, the reduced number of game- 
keepers had great difficulty handling the situation. 

The new la\7s were hailed by everyone I met as a real improvement. 
There are three major provisions to this legislation which has been passed but 
has not yot come into force. It sets up American style hunting seasons, 
prohibits shooting at night, and gives the Nature Conservancy the right to 
remove deer that arc dam.aging crops. It v;a3 backed by landlords who v/ere 
having difficultj'" controlling poaching, people interested in the humane aspect 
of hunting because of the wounding and escaping of night shot animals, and the 
Nature Conservancy people who wanted a lever to use on landlords that refused 
to do anything about reducing the herds on their property. The nev/ laws are 
looked upon vrith great hope as establishing the basis for sound managem.ont of 
the Scottish red deer. 

Bavaria t 

German37- is one of the most densely populated countries in the vrorld. 
Prom a population of 76 people per square kilometre in I9OO the population has 
increased to 130 per square kilometre today as compared to 1? per square kilo- 
metre in the United States, Despite the problems in maintaining wildlife 
populations created by such a dense human population there are estimated to be 
30,500 red deer in Bavaria alone. Most of these live in the southern part of 
Bavaria next to the Austrian border in the high mountains. The number of red 
deer is regulated by law. Any deer over the prescribed number must be shot. 
In the south, ^vhere the country is mountainous and agriculture less important 
3.5 red deer per 100 hectares (about 9,1 deer per square mile) is the maximum 
number allov/ed so that forest regeneration will not be damaged. A lesser 
number is established for the rest of Bavaria because of the damage to crops 
and intensive forestry. Red deer were said to be spreading into nov; areas due 
to the regulation limiting shooting v;hich was passed in 1933. The number of 
red deer permitted to be shot is based on how much damage they do to field and 
forest. The exact animals to be shot are prescribed and the hunter can lose 
his licence for shooting the v;rong one. 

The licence in Bavaria costs SO Marks (*12o OO) pl\as an additional 
15 to • 16 Marks (.154.00) for insurance. The insiirance protects him to the extent 
of 30,000 Marks (l7,500) for damage to objects and 100,000 Marks S25,000) for 
damage to people. However, I v.;as assured that there were seldom any accidents 
because of the way their hunting is organized. 

In order to hunt a man must rent a hunting area or be invited by a 
friend who ovms or rents one. The cost of renting an area for hunting red 
deer v;as quoted as 12 to 14 Marks per hectare (about $1,00 to Si. 25 per acre). 
Since the minimum size of hunting area allov/ed is 8I hectares the minimum 
annual rent for a huntingground is 972 Marks (S243c). Furthermore, it is 
required by lav/ that the area be rented for at least a 12 year period for red 
deer. On State land most hunting is done by State employees but a few a,nimals 
(360 this year) are sold to be shot by outside hunters at I50 to 200 Marks 

- 37 - 

($40.00 to IJ5O.OO) per animal. The size of the areas rented on State la^nd for 
hunting red deor run from I5OO hectares (5«8 square miles) in the mountain 
regions, and from 750 hectares (3 square miles) and up in the lov/lands, -For 
hunting on one of these areas the hunter must pay about 20,000 Marks ($5,000) 
per year to the Government, Ho must also pay nearlj'" an equal amount for feed, 
gamekeepers v/ages, dogs, houses and entertainment. Despite these extremely 
high prices there are many men in Germany today \vho can a-fford to rent hunting 
areas. They are even paying higher prices for hunting in neighbouring 

Red deer are required by la'v to bo fed in winter. The situation in 
the Bavarian mountains seemed quite similar to that described for vrapiti in 
vv'estern North America, The deer go into the mountains in the summertime but 
their traditional wintering grounds in the lower valleys now been usurped 
by humans. Hence in order to maintain any populations they must be fed in 
vvinter, I visited one feeding station consisting of a field two or three 
acres in size v;ith food troughs and a barn to hold the feed. It was stated 
that open crater m/ast be nea-r each feeding station or the deer would die of 
thirst, A mountain stream flowed by the open rear gate of the field I v/as in. 
The deer would come diO-ni from the mountains at dusk to feed and move a short 
distance to cover during the day. The food used is a silage of green grass 
salted and pressed much like sauerkraut. This is fed mth hay, acorns and 
malt from the breweries. About 3 or 4 lbs. of the silage and hay is fed each 
day along v/ith a little acorn or malt and oats. They also feed sunflov/er 
seeds, beets and soya bean meal, but although these a±*e very good they are too 
expensive. The estim.ated cost of feeding red deer v/as 20 pfennigs per animal. 
Since 100 and 120 red deer were fed at the station I visited this would mean 
about 20 Marks (S5.OO) per day for the station. 

In talking about the problems of red doer management some additional 
facts about the deer Y/ere recorded. Maximum age of red deer was given as 
about 20 years, vath maximum antler development at I4 yearn. An aging method 
using dentition much as we do in Ontario is in use in Bavaria with the' 
following age groups being designated, -g-, l-g-, 2, 2-|-, 3j 4-5} 5-6> ^""7? 7-8, 
8-10, 10-12 and 12-14 years. The reproduction rate Avas quoted as 80 calves 
per 100 cows. 

I 'was unable to see any red doer in Austria but Dr, Ammon of Graz 
described to me the rather elaborate v/inter feeding method which was in use 
there. On the theory that too easy access to food was not good for the deer 
they consider cd t>iat 14 hours ou.t of 24 should be spent obta-ining food. In 
order to bring this about the food was placed in caches that were hardpacked 
so that they were hai^-to pull apart, Betv/een the ca,ches were placed small 
haystacks and salt licks with the idea that the deer would move from one to 
the other, I v/as told that only two deer per 100 hectares v/ore allo'wed on an 
area because a nursing deer requires 200 grammes of albumen per daj for milk 
production and I50 for itself. If populations are any more dense than 
this the proper food is not available. 

- 38 - 

Prepa,ration of the caches is Toy teams of four merij one mov/ing, one 
transporting and two trampingo The food is usually put up in late May and June, 
Plastic bags containing five cubic metres are used to pack the food. One of 
these is enough to feed ten animals for about l-g- months. When properly 
prepared, a job "hich takes about eight hoars, they will not spoil for two 
years. In filling the plastic bags, layers of freshly cut grass are alternated 
v/ith lajT-ers of leaves and tv.-igs from both deciduous and evergreen trees. Only 
the new grovrth chopped into 10 centimetre lengths is used. Layers of molasses 
and sugar are spread between the layers of greens and some turnips are mixed in 
to provide enough waiter content. This is packed into the plastic bags by 
tramping and sometimes by running over v/ith a tractor. After being left to 
heat for three days a hole is dug and a layer of building paper placed on it. 
The bag of prepared food is then set in the hole and about 40 centimotr'jE of 
earth is heaped over it. It is left in this condition until needed in the 
'.vintertirae. Along with the cached food some hay is fed but it too is mixed 
with alternate layers of leaves, Dr, Ammon stated that deer fed in this way 
have shovm excellent a,ntlor development. 

The hunting of red deer in the mountains of Austria is by a drive 
method when females are to be shot to rediice the herd, Otherv^ise -vvhen stags 
are being hunted the method used is stalking with a guide or still hunting from 
one of their tower blinds. The stags are sometimes called to the towers with 
the use of cov,'- horns. 

Denmark t 

Only about 3,000 red door live in Denmark because of the damage they 
cause to crops and forests. Of these about 600 are shot each year. The 
hunting season is from September 1st to March 1st for stags and from October 1st 
to March 1st for cows and calves. All hunting is en rented or private land. 

Despite the small num.bers present some excellent work has been done 
on the testing of traditional counting methods for red deer in Denmark, In 
some sand dune plantations the total estimated number of deer vras I50. Mien 
they wanted to reduce the herd l&r , Andersen with v;hom I talked persuaded them 
to shoot 140 plus 40 outside the actual area, llext yeax I40 plus 30 v;ere shot, 
rjid this \Ja,3 continued for four years. On the basis of the succeeding years' 
kill figures they calculated that the original population must ha-ve been about 
350 deer. This experiment supplemented their work on roe deer v/hich is 
reported in the section on that 

Other Countries g 

In Svreden only about I50 red deer are lcft„ Efforts are being made 
to increase thi^ herd as they are different from, either the deer in Scotland 
or Germany, They are intermediate in size a slightly varied conformation 
of the antlers. 

In Horway about I5OO stags are shot each year along the v/est coast 
north of Trondheim. They provide very fine shooting but there is little 
interest shovm by hunters. Perhaps because the stalking is so difficult. 

- 39 - 

In Holland due to the high human population there is very little 
room for red deer. The deer they have are nearly entirely confined to hunting 
preserves. Red deer from other countries have been imported in an effort to 
improve the antler quality in these preserves hut with no success. It is now 
pretty well accepted that soil is the determining factor. It does not provide 
the essentials for good antler o:rowth. 


Roe deer are much smaller than the North American v/hite-tailed deer 
and therefore are very much smaller than the European red deer. The;/ seemed 
about the size of a medium breed of dog except for the longer legs. They are 
much more common and are much grea-ter in numbers than the red deer because they 
require less shelter, less living area, and less food. They can survive in 
much more highlj'- cultivated country and cause less damage to crops or forests, 


The Bavarian officials estimated that there were 593,500 roe deer in 
Bavaria, They are very intensel.^r managed. In deciding how many deer may be 
shot on a hunting unit, the area is determined and the size of unsuitable land 
within the hunting unit is subtracted. This gives the total usable area which 
is then divided into percent forests and meadows, since more meadows m.ean more 
food, yet some forests are required for shelter. The animals are counted in 
the spring before the young are born, then agedn after the young come and 
finally in the late summer. The hunt is arranged from this last figure so 
that they will again be rediiced to the number allowed by law. A ba.lanced sex 
ratio of 5O-5O is preferred and 100 fav/ns per 100 females is expected. 

The pricR for a hunting area for roe deer is m.uch less than that for 
red deer and the area need only be rented for nine years instead of twelve. 
At about foi.Tr to six Marks per hectare a minimum, area of 8I hectares would 
cost 324 Marks ($31.00) per year. This would allow hunting for roe deer, 
pheasants, and other small game. Usually at least 25O hectares' (about 6OO 
acres) are rented. The average size would probably be about 1,000 hectares 
(about 2,500 acr3s)c An average roe doer hunting area nea.r a town would 
probably cost 3,000 to 45OOO Markos (about ;11,000,) each year. Before the war 
farmers used to shoot roe deer because of the damage to crops but no'w hunting 
rights are v/orth miore than the damage they cause. The numiber shot is again 
based on the damage as is the case for red deerc Apparently the same 50 Mark 
(312, 00) licence is requirod as for red deer and the number of bucks, does and 
fawns to be shot is again specified. The roe deer season is from June 1st for 
males and from. S3ptem.ber for females and young. No dogs or drives are allo\7ed 
in the hunting. Winter feeding of roe deer is not nearly as prevalent as is 
rod deer feeding. The only comment that I heard about it was to the effect 
that if they were fed only clover they became ill and died. 

- 40 - 

Pen mar ks 

A"bout 25,000 roe deer are shot each year in Denmark, The rent for 
hunting areas is ahout 5 to 10 Kroner per hectare (ahout 30 to 60 cents per 
acre), or douhle th?!,t on the best areas. In a park near Copenhagen they had 
heavy v/inter losses of roe deer until they hegan to crop them more heavily. 
Thej?- now shoot ahout 700 out of a ia,ll population of 2,000 thus leaving about 
700 mature females in the herd, A live roe deer is worth 200 to 300 Danish 
Kroner (ahout S3O.OO to S45.00)t These deer are usually used for stocking in 
other places. A dead roe deer v/ould be valued at 50 to 70 Kroner (a/bout '^3,00 
to Sl4o00). Because of the differential in price some estates actually raise 
roe deer to sell alive. The meat is worth about 3 to 3.5 Kroner per kilo- 
gramme dressed vreight (about ,250 per lb,). The hunting season is from 
May 15th to Julj 15th for roe bucks and from October 1st to Decemiber 31^^t for 
any roe deer. 

The only real research on field techniques in the North American 
tradition was found in the Danish work on roe and red deer. Some of the 
results of their work have been published in papers by Dr» Johs. Andersen of 
lialo Research Station, The work was begun when this research station was set 
up on an old hunting estate. An effort was m.ade to remove all deer from the 
two small isolated vrood lots on the area preparatory to the introduction of 
better stock. They made an estimate of the number of deer in the woodlots 
using the accepted European method of repeated observations, such as, counting 
the deer as they come from the vrood to feed in the early morning. Ten men 
v.'cre assig-ned the task of shooting all the deer. It took three months of 
hunting three or four days a week with the use of dogs to kill them a.ll. After 
the first day the deer woiild not come out for the dogs but ran in circles inside 
the woods. Among the manj conclusions from- this work v;as the fact that 75/^ of 
the animals must be shot to give a true pictujre of the sex ratio of roe deer 
because of the tendency for bucks to come out of the v/oods first. Even more 
surprising was the number of deer killed , ITearly three times the original 
estimate of the deer population in the woodlots was finally harvested. 

In a subsequent experiment, the number of roe deer in a, 5OO hectare 
(1,250 acres) enclosure v/as estim.ated at 125 deer, A total of I65 were 
actually shot. In this area which was severely over browsed the mean weight of 
door v/as 2 kilogrammes (about 4'3 lbs.) lower than at the Kalo Research 
Station and the prodi.action of fawns v/as only 0,9 fawns per female in the 
lonccd area as compared with 1,3 favms per female at Kalo. 

The serious questions vrhich this work raised concerning the accuracy 
of the older counting methods led to the development of a nev/ method for 
estimating roe deer numbers at Kalo, Deer wor,e trapped in a. long nKrrov/ pen ofo 
v/ire a trap door at one end to which a Idng rope was attached. The door 
v;as left open at all times except for being tripped from a distance by the men 
checking the trap. Yfnen the deer v/ere caught, the men would immediateljr rush 
into the pen and, crov/ding the deer to the other end. catch them before they 
could start racing against the mrc. The javi/s of the captures anima<,ls v/ere 
examined for ages. Leather collars v/ith three coloured plastic plates on 
side plus a number plate v/ere then fastened on the deer along v/ith ear tags for 
positive identifi caption of individuals. The young deer v/ere marked v/ith a 
special colouj combination for that year v/hile older deer were marked vath a 
standard colour. 

- 41 - 

After alDcut 70 to Qofo of the deer in the woods were marked in this 
way, stalkers were sent out in the spring, usually immediately after the 
completion of tagging, to record numhers of deer seen. Using a telescope the 
colours of marked deer vrould he recorded along v/ith the sex. Any uncertain 
observations were omitted. The ratio of marked to unmarked animals then 
provided a kind of Lincoln index and the numbers of different year classes 
seen provided an estimate of mortality rates. Although this method is not 
yet thoroughly tested it is hoped that it vdll give very good results. The 
only serious source of error seems to be the tendency of young animals to be 
caught more easily than adults. They do not believe, hov/ever, that any 
difficulties with the new method v/ill lead to errors of the kind revealed in 
the old one. Pre-baiting for the traps begins right after Christmas and 
trapping continues from January 1st until the snow goes or until the en± of 
February when the gro^;rbh of nev/ antlers interferes. 

Other Countries ; 

In Austria the common hunting method for roe deer is a drive in 
which men close in from four sides through the v/oods. The hunters are allowed 
to shoot before them only to a certain point in the drive after which they can 
only shoot the deer after they have gone tlirough the drive line. 

In Sweden there are estimated to be 150,000 roe deer. In 1957 it 
was estimated that 20,000 to 30,000 roe deer starved during a severe v/inter. 
Despite this loss the hunt the follov/ing autumn produced- about the same number 
of deer as in previous years, that is about 35 j 000 to 40,000. In Jamtland 
Province they estimate the weight of roe deer at 40 kilogrammes (about 90 lbs.) 
and more. About 1,000 deer are shot there each year out of a population of 
3,000 to 4,000. In middle Sv/eden 25 kilogrammes (about 55 lbs.) is the v/eight 
of a very good buck. An any deer season is in force except in certain 
counties where a special season is declared allowing hunting in September and 
December. The roc deer population is considered to be still on the increase. 

In Norv^-ay the population of the roc deer is estimated at 75? 000 to 
150,000 deer, yet in 195^ only 1,500 were shot. The law does not permit roe 
deer to be hunted v/ith dogs but it does permit hunting hares with dogs. The 
sportsmen feel that it is partly for this reason that roe deer are considered 
a pest v/hich disturbs the hare shooting. The Sportsmen's Society is trying to 
get the Government to allow hunting of roc doer dogs. The ITorwegians 
mentioned that the roe deer are seriously affected by snov/ in Norway as -j^ell 
as in Sweden, They include foxes among the -predators on this small deer. 


I V7as not able to learn very much about wild boars in Europe. In 
Bavaria they do so much damage that they are not fed any more. Indeed they 
are supposed to be shot on sight, but many hunters like them and do not shoot, 
Right after the war when the Germans were forbidden to have guns the wild 
boars increased greatly and did a great deal of damage. They are now pretty 
v/oll under control again v/ith very fev/ being found outside the enclosures. 
In larger parks they are kept for the sake of tradition, I v/as able to see 

- 42 - 

some in Forstenrcid Park on the outskirts of Munich, They were lured out by a 
few pails of garbage much as we shovi off hears at garbage dumps. There v/as a 
high v.dre enclosiore around the area and a giant live trap to catch any that 
escaped. Here the damage done by the v/ild pigs was tolerated even though torn 
up roots and holes dug under the plantation trees were very much in evidence. 

In Austria due to a misunderstanding I missed a chance of seeing a 
wild boar hunt at Allensteig near Vienna, The hunt v/as by some Government 
officials and was carried out on an army training ground which was also used as 
a hunting preserve. The director of the hunt described it to me as a drive 
made up of 20 men and four or five dogs, usually dachshunds or fox hounds with .^ 
about 20 shooters waiting on the other side. The shooters would be lined up 
along two dirt roads that met at a corner. The drivers would then form a semi- 
circle driving into the angle. The shooters v/ere only allov;ed to shoot the 
hogs after they crossed the road. It v/as forbidden to shoot tov^ards the 
drivers. Only wild boars and foxes 7/ould be shot on such a drive, 


One of the animals of the mountainous regions of Europe is the 
chamois. Looking somewhat like our mountain goats, it has rather short curved 
black horns. It is brownish in colour v/ith black and v/hite markings on the 
face. It does not breed until five years old and then only has one young per 
year. Herds may reach a size of 40 to ^0 animals. Adult bucks stay with the 
herd only in v/inter, Cov^s withdraw from the herd at the time of calving. The 
hunters have to be very careful of their shooting plans because of the low 
reproductive rate. 

The method used for hunting chamois v/as described to me in Austria, 
Shooters are set up at several mountain passes so that they block off a 
circular mountain valley. The chamois are then driven down into the valley and 
are shot at each pass through v/hich they try to escape. The alternative to 
this sort of hunting method is stalking, whereby one or two men attempt to 
approach the chamois on foot. This is verjr difficult because of the animals' 
behaviour pattern of watching the lower ground from great heights in the 

Pisease Problems? 

The grea,test problem in chamois management at the present time is a 
variety of mango caused by the mite, Sarcoptes scabiei var, riipicaprae. 
Although this disease has been present for many years it was intensified after 
the war by the double process of herds increasing due to restrictions on the 
use of gians for hunting and reduction of the range tlirough expanding hume.n 
populations. The more crov/ded the range became the greater the problem, Som.c 
mountains have already had all chamois destroyed by the disease. 

The female of the parasite lays 30 to 50 Gggs. In two to fo^-ir days 
they hatch into six legged larvae. After another tvro to four days they develop 
into eight legged nymphs. In another three days they have become adults and 
after three more days they are ready to begin laying eggs themselves. The total 

- 43 - 

life cycle takes only 10 to I5 days, Assximing a 50 to 50 sex ratio one female 
can have half a million young in 2^ months. For this reason the disease 
spreads very rapidly, A similar parasite S arccptes scahioi var, ca-T'^Q-i- 
infects ^o^t?. Although the two mites look identical, it is helieved that 
they cannot infect other hosts. The exact difference is questionable "but it has 
heen suggested that they might he different suh-species. 

The mites are very small, Thej^ can live 12 to 14 days separate from 
the host in winter "but only six days in summer due to the more rapid metabolic 
rates in warm weather. Although they majr be passed on by infected ground, it 
is usuallsr by direct contact between animals. Since this includes dead 
animals, all hides must be burned v/hen efforts are made to control the disease. 
The meat is thought to be harmless to foxes. The effect on the chamois is the 
production of great unsightly lesions around all the body openings, Ycxj often 
the animal becomes blind and cannot eat, I v;as shown coloured slides of 
chamois in various stages of affliction. There seemed to be a steady increase 
in the incidence of hard crusted scabs as the disease progressed. 

Control methods to date have consisted mainly of shooting diseased 
animals. Since all hides have to be burned this is a difficult procedure. Yet, 
in some places they have reduced herds by four, five or six cha,mois per 100 
hectares. They have also tried to reduce the number of tourists, who add to 
the problem hj oha.sing the chamois off their feeding places in their efforts 
to see the animals or to go mountain climbing. An unusual method of control 
was begun a few years ago in Bavaria, based on the idea that by reducing 
internal parasites they would allow the animals to build up their strength 
until they could tlirow off the external para,sites. In the first test of this 
theory blocks v.dth minerals, iron, copper, manganese, phenothiasm (to destroy 
internal parasites) arsenic, spices to a.ttract the animals, copper sulphate, 
and 50/^ sodium chloride wore put out on a special study area. In the first 
year 20 infected animals were shot. In the second year three v/ere shot and in 
the third yee.r none were shot. This demonstration so impressed the Bavarian 
Government that the workers v/ero given enough money to begin a special research 
programme in an effort to obtain more conclusive results. 

About two years ago a fence v/as built on one of the mountains as the 
beginning of a research station. They had trouble mth snow the first winter 
but by putting two poles together and leaving the fence loose between them 
they managed to beat this problem. Because of the extreme inaccossibilitjr of 
the ■ area .a United States Army helicopter v.-ao employed to bring in the metal 
fence posts. The fenced area was divided into two parts and captured animals 
'.vere placed on each, It;was hoped that by artificially infecting one group of 
animals they \/ould be able to dDtermine if the parasites could spread without 
direct contact between hosts. Of the animals already infected two are being 
fed ordinary salt as a control. On them the disease is developing normally. 
Another one is being fed the special salt and results so far look promising. 
They hope to continue this experiment until it is conclusive. In the meantime 
they are learning something of the food habits of chamois, Thcyplanted plants 
in the enclosiires and counted them so- that preferences could be determined. 
They found that the animals eat herbs, grass, browse and lichen. This project 
was one of the best designed and carried out research programmes that I saw on 
the continent. If it proves to be successful it v/ould appear to be a milestone 
in the handling of vdldlife diseases. 

- 44 - 

Use of Capture _Gun_ in Rescarcli ; 

In the course of visits to the enclosure in the mountains mention v^as 
made of a capture gun "being used to obtain animals for the onclosure,, Further 
enquiries revealed that it v/as the same gun that v/e have "been using in Ontario « 
When I enq.uired ahout its effectiveness I was surprised to find that Vaey 
considered it good. Further q^uestioning revealed that they had m.odified it 
considerably for improved performance. At a demonstration three darts v.'ero 
put within a foot of each other from a.hou.t 150ft, Prohahly 30ft , would he a 
maximum range for this kind of accuracy with our gun. The changes which they 
made wore as f ollo-.vs r 

1, The g-un v/as converted to a single shot weapon. They argued that 

if the first shot missed there v/ould he no time for a second one 

2, A pressure gauge was attached to the front end of the air charaher 

so that a compressed air tank could he attached, 

3, The pressure regulator was changed inside the gun and a new 

indicator reading in metres was added, 

4, A sighting telescope v/as added, 

5, A projected addition was the mounting of a range finder for 

increased accuracj''. 

In use, a charge of 60 atmospheres compressed air is loaded in the 
gun using the pressure gauge to determine the amount. The pressure regulator 
is then vset at the correct distance adjusting the pressure as follo7/si 

For 60 metres - 26 atmospheres pressure. 
For 50 metres - 20 atmospheres pressure. 
For 30 metres - 12 atmospheres pressure. 
For 20 metres - 8 atmospheres pressure. 

This was sot for the double purpose of maintaining a constant trajectory for 
more accurate shooting and of preventing the da,rt from hitting too hard at 
close distances. This kind of pressure arrangement particularly desirable 
in Bavaria because of the fact that they vrere v/orking in the moiintains whore 
pressure might vary tvro or three atmospheres from the time they loaded the gun 
until they got up to the chamois. 

With these changes in the gun they soon found thoy were able to hit 
the animals, Iiowcverj they were still not knocking them out, VJlien- experim.ents 
v/ith the captive animals shov/ed that the drug was working all right, they 
decided to do some experiments with the darts. Since the darts v/ere empt;f aftar 
shooting they knev; that the fluid wa.s being ejected. In order to test them 
further they put up a paper target and spread papers on the ground along the 
path of flight to the target, The^r then loaded several darts with ink and shot 
them at the target. They found tha^t very little ink was ever deposited on the 
target but it could be found all along the path of flight. Obviously the fluid 
v;as being lost before the dart hit the a,nimal. The reason for this vras that 

- 45 - 

the rubber stopper in the dart ivas removed "by inertia when the dart was fired o 
The little loss of fluid on short flights did not make any difference hut v/hen 
they increased the range of the gun the problem suddenly became serious. They 
mot it by changing the darts 

1. The rubber stopper v/as turned around and by means of a small 

piece of plastic was fitted into the tail section of the dart. 
This simple change meant that it v/ould com.e out on impact 
ra^ther than v/hen fired, 

2, The needle v/as shortened. 

3» The barb was changed to a small pair of backward pointing 

notches for summer use or four notches for v.dnter use due to 
the thicker ha,ir of the chamois in vdnter, 

4e The tail of the dart was clipped shorter to reduce air 

Since they have made these changes they have not lost an animal. 
They had captured 15 or l6 chamois in the previous three months and had used 
the gun on goats and red deer mth equally good results. They are noY-r 
negotiating vath the American company to sell them patent rights for the 
improved guns and darts. 

The drug used on the chamois was nicotine salicylate. They reported 
no trouble vdth it and no antedote was used, ^fhen the animals died from other 
causes it was examined histologically in a laboratory. It shov/ed no damage 
from the nicotine despite the fact that it had been one of several animals 
that had been knocked out three times» They find the drug takes four to five 
minutes to act during which time the animal may travel 600 metres. In order 
to recover them dogs are used to trail them until they go diO"m, The animal 
usually stays unconscious about 30 to 45 minutes and is still dizzy for an 
hour afterv/ards. If a longer period of time is required for h^xidling the 
animal, an anesthetic of a different kind is administrated. The darts are 
only boiled after use and no effort is made to keep them asceptic because they 
must go through the thick mat of hair. After the hunters come up to the 
chamois they disinfect the wound with foctun on the outside but do not feel 
tliat antibiotics are needed. Tranquilizers are used v/hen transporting the 
animal (ethylmethj/l butyl barbituricum) , The onlj'- trouble they have encountered 
is that the animal "/ill die of loss of blood if it happens to be hit in an , 
im.portant vein. The dose of nicotine salicylate used is 60 kilogrammes per 
square centim.etre body surface which works out to about 9 ral. per kilogramme 
for chamois and I5 ml, per kilogramme for red deer, 


Grey Squirrels^ in England ; 

The North American grey squirrel, Seiurus carolinesis leucotis , the 
subspecies found in eastern Ontario, was introduced into England about the 
beginning of the present century. In England, as in North America, they nested 
in the trunks of large trees and in leafy nests built low in the branches of 

- 46 - 

treeso Raising two litters per year, they spread rapidly, but soon vv-ere found 
to "be injurious to forestry interestSc Since they are of little harm to trees 
in North America I was interested in seeing what kind of damage they did in 
England. I found that they ea,t the hark from the base of the trunks of trees 
and to a lesser extent from the branches. They usually attack deciduous trees 
but vd.ll also damage pines and firsts The smooth skinned species such as the 
Acers, beeches p hornbeams and birches particularly susceptible. Even if 
the squirrels do not kill the trees, the quality of the wood is much reduced 
by deformation of the trunk. The squirrels also attack seed beds in nurseries 
.and cones in seed orchards. The damage is sufficiently serious to v/arra^nt a 
research project at the Alice Holt Forest Research Station in southern England, 

Movement Studies? 

The first stage of the study was begun about five years ago as an 
effort to learn something of the movements of the squirrels ^ A programme of 
trapping, tagging and releasing squirrels Y/as begun on a 1? acre plot. This 
was soon found to be too sma.ll and a tv/o mile radius Vv'as added to the original 
area. Nearly 100 animals have been marked in this project. Some of them have 
been re-tra.pped about one mile away after only four days. One was caught about 
100 times in three or four years. The objectives of this early phase of the 
programm.e were to determine the best times for trapping in order to control the 
animals; to find out the area that must be trapped to protect a specific 
place 5 to establish size of territories and home range 5 and to find the 
relationship bet¥/een population sizes and surrounding crop production. 

Aging Criteria s 

The second phase of the study was initiated in the hope of finding an 
aging technique that would work on live animals. The method used thus far is 
based on staining the dentine by painting silver nitrate on the teeth. 
Drawings are then made of each tooth using an epidiascope or a camera lucida. 
The dentine parts of the drawing are filled in with ink and photographed on 
35 mm, film. Standard negatives have been prepared by photographing bits of 
black paper cut from a sheet of knovm area and scattered on a white sheet of 
paper. The tooth photogra-ph is compared with the standard photographs by means 
of a light sensitive cell and gal^^anometer. The total area, of dentine is used 
to determine the age of the squirrel. 

Po pulation E s tiniation i 

Many methods of coimting the squi::'rels have been attempted,, Nest 
counts, counts of squirrels over specified times a,nd area, and Lincoln indices 
have been the major ones. The Lincoln index using live traps and tagging viras 
the only method which shov/ed promise. The abundance of squirrels is suggested 
by the fact that 76 animals were trapped on I6 acres for an average 4-5 
squirrels per acre. They believed that they had trapped all the squirrels in 
this particular 7/oodlot a.nd that it was an unusually high population, 
Mr, Courtier, one of the research workers, recounted having shot I8 squirrels 
in two hours by just walking through a woodlot. 

- 47 - 

C_qntrol s 

Four methods of control li^-ve toen a+tempted.3 

?-. Bount3^„ A total of £32,000 (nearly :^90,000) v;as spont in one 
year on squirrel tails j bou?itied. at 2s, Od, a tail, with no 
noticeable effect on the squirrel population. The total 
squirrels j'.illed and reported :ai this prograrnme , mcst of them 
being bounticd, 'Tere as follov/d? 

1931 160,483 

1952 1665 038 

1953 262,589 

1954 406,903 

1955 233,350 

1956 172,3]-g 

Total l,/.0^;£;n 

Various bounties were paid on-968.;-'79 of these squirrels 
totalling £635029 (about .1i;i76,000 , Since no reduction v/as 
effected the bounty payments were stopped. 

2. Free shot-^g^an cartridges stamped "squirrel cartridge" were 
issued to recognized squirrel clubs at the rate of tv/o 
cartridges per squirrel turned in, 

3o Long poles v/ere used to poke squirrels out of the r.ests while 
shooters made a circle around the tree and shot any squirrel 
that came out. This was found to be the most effective 

4. Trapping \7ith live traps (spring traps are outlav/ed in England) 
were used quite extensively and vrcre considered to be second 
best in effectiveness. Two kinds of traps were used, A 
multi-catch trap that would catch up to four squirrels at one 
time was considered inferior to a single catch trap. The 
la,tter v/as an ordina.ry bor trap. It v^-as found to be lighter, 
cheaper and more efficient. In one instance a total of 5^0 
squirrels was caught; in three weekr trapping on -.bout 300 

l'l3v;'cen_ in_. Scotland s 

Er, Jim. Lockie of the Edinburgh Ha,ture Conservancy was working on 
martens, \7easels and stoats in a v\roodlot about three miles long by one-half 
mile in v/idth. Due to the fact the/c haul roads are n.uch used by marten for 
travelling because of the extreme thickness of the surrounding heather, sos,ts 
are easily collected along the roads at all sea,sons. They are also collected 
from latrines, thought by Dr., Lockie to bo associated with nests, on boulder 
piles in March and April. The scants are cleaned in a seine then separated in 
water by eye into the various components. The results are expressed as percent 
of dry weight. This is a compromise because of Dxc Lockie' s dissatisfaction 
vdth the use of percent occu.rrence and. on the other hand, the extreme amount 
of time consumed in identifying all individual pieces. 

- 48 - 

From his v/ork so far Dr. Lockio has found that the diet of marten is 
made up of tho followdng foods in order of importance, 

1° Micrptus .agres ti_s_. The meadow vole, 

2. Small "birds „ 

3o Hares and rahhits, 

4. Carrion including dead deer in winter = 

5o Lepidoptera lavae and pupae* 

6, Wasps nests and beetles. 

7. Spawning trout that were scooped from, the water in a manner 

similar to that used "by "bears, 
8o Rov/an and Va cciniu m "berries. 

Of the three most important mice Microtus, 5pidemus and Clethri onomys, only 
a"bout five to eight percent of the population of wild communities is accounted 
for hy l-IijJro_tu_s « The preference shovm 'hj marten- for this vole is indicated "by 
the fact that in the analysis of marten stomachs, it makes up a"bout Qofo of the 
mice eaten, Clethrionomys is the next most important food ivith Bpidemu s last, 

Fi nn 1 sh_ FYir- Be ar er s s 
Red^ Scj uirre l s s 

The native red squirrels of Finland are dependent on seed production 
of spruce and to a lesser extent pine for enough food to sustain high 
populations, A hunting season is only declared on the years when good- seed 
production leads to high num"bers of squirrels. In a good year about 2,000,000 
skins will be taken and sold as fur. At the Game Research Institute at 
Helsinki this relationship between the population level and food production has 
been investigated along -with some work on the moulting of squirrels, 

Muskrats g 

Muskrats imported from North America are now nearly everywhere in 
Finland, An average of about 200,000 are trapped each spring, the highest so 
far having been 600,000, Muskrats are not liked by anglers because they are 
believed to destroy nearly all the vegetation in the la.kes but they are other- 
wise well appreciated as valuable fur-bearers. Shooting muskrats is not 
allowed, a fact which some believe may lead to over-population and trouble in 
maintaining sufficient v^inter food, 

Bea ver" 

They nov7 have some European and some Canadian beaver in Finland, The 
first trapping and shooting season was in the autumn of 1958 when they harvested 
100 beaver, Beaver are also increasing slightly in northern Sweden, 


One fur-bearer v/hich is not appreciated in the Scandinavian countries 
is mink. No species of mink is native to Finnoscandia, The present population 
has built up from mink that were released from fur farms during the war. There 

- 49 - 

is much concern throughout Tooth Finland and Sv/edon a"bout the possible damage 
mink majr do to v/aterfov/l and upland game bird populations through the 
destruction of eggs and young. Although a few men were inclined to doubt 
v/hether the damage was really very great the majority of those I talked to were 
convinced that the mink was a serious menace. 

Bears t. 

The European bear, Urs us ar ctius, also occurs in Finland, 
Mr, Helminen told me that the sloill of a bear which weighed 300 kilogrammes 
(about 660 Ibso) had been collected. 

Har e s i n _ De nma rk s 

The hunting of hares is an important sport in Denmark, the season 
being from October 1st to January 1st, In an average year in the north-east 
part of Zealand the production will run about three hares shot per 100 hectares 
(about 82 acres per hare). In the best areas of Denmark the production will 
run at about 40 hares per 100 hectares (about one hare for every six acres). 
They estimate that about 400,000 hares are shot each year in Denmark, 

Because of this interest research has been carried out on hare 
population estimations on the same basis as the work done on deer. On a 
200 acre island used as a research area hares are tagged and the ears tattooed. 
They are able to catch 6ofo of the hares in each trapping so that by the time 
four or five trappings have been carried out all the hares are marked. They 
are trapped by means of a Lechleitner trap described in the Journal of Wildlife 
Management 22(4) OTl? 1958. After the marking, about 50 people (30 children 
from school and 20 adults) are used to drive ' the island and send the hares into 
a strung out fish net. Men waiting just in front of the net jump up and scare 
them after they pass, then grab them before they can become disentangled from 
the net. About one drive per v/eek is held during the September peak population 
and again during March to show mnter loss. There is very little loss in 
summer. The drive is organized much as a pignic vrou.ld be with food for all and 
payment of 20 Kroner (about 13.75) "to each adult. 

On another island hunters thought ^that they had 4OO hares. In 
the drive before the hunt about 100 hares were marked. In the first hunt 200 
hares Virere killed of vv^iich 20 were the- marked ones. Using the Lincoln index 
this suggested a population of about 1,000 hares. Later, the research workers 
convinced the hunters that they could hold another shoot during- v;hich they shot 
400 hares. Of these 39 were marked, again making the estimate 1,000 hares. 

On still another island rented hj hunters I5 hares were introduced in 
1946, In 1948 - 200 v/ere shot, in 1949 - TOO and in I959 they expected to 
shoot about 1,000„ 

Dr, Andersen and his co-workers think that hunting has very little to 
do v/ith the size of hare populations. On another island there are usually 100 
hares in the fall and 40 or 50 in the spring despite shooting. An exception v/as 
this year in which there were 200 hares because of an exceptionally dry year 
v^rhich allowed a greater survival of young than usual, A living hare mil sell 
for 55 Kroner (about S8,25) and a dead one will sell for fibout 10 Kroner (Sl,50)o 

_ 50 - 

D isease in Hares ; 

A few years ago hunters in Denmark thought that they should get nev/ 
"blood into the local hare populations. Accordingly j they imported some hares 
from Germany, The hares in Gormanj'- had "been imported from Hungary where a 
disease called Brucellosis is common., ITov/ that it is too late, a law has heen 
passed against such imports into Denmark, The disease has already arrived. 

The organism involved is Brucella sui_s . Although it does no serious 
damage to hare populations, it also infects pigs. It is "believed that the pigs 
get it hy eating hares v/hich have died of the disease. Once the "boars are 
infected they infect all sows in the herd vj-ith resulting high numbers of 
abortions and losses of young pigs. Some large farms have had to kill off all 
pigs on the estate. Here is yet another example of the danger of moving mid- 
life from their original habitat, even when the nev; location is already 
populated by the sa,me species, 


Birds in Sweden ; 

There is very much hand raising of birds in Sweden. The instructors 
at the Ostermalma Wildlife School informed me that pheasants v/ero extensively 
raised in southern and middle Svreden on big estates. This was because the 
owners of the estates \7anted higher levels of game birds than the land could 
produce naturally. The pheasants would be released at eight or nine weeks of 
age and shot in November, Duck ponds v;ere also a very common sight, Nearly 
every research station or any establisliment having anything to do mth v.dldlife 
had a part of the grounds made into duck ponds. Ducks were encouraged to nest 
by building many kinds of artificial nesting sites and placing them around the 
edges of the ponds. Presumably this is due to the great shortage of nesting 
areas in the Scandinavian countries. Coupled v/ith extensive shooting in other 
countries, there being no international treaty, these nesting shortages have 
brought about greatly reduced -vvaterfowl populations in the last fev; years. 

At the vri.ldlife school birds were raised for demonstration purposes. 
About 650 young pheasants were raised under domestic henf.; and allowed to run 
free outdoors while the hens rema-ined in sm.all slatted houses. This v;as to 
demonstrate the old method cf pheasant raising v/hich is still the best one for 
raising small numbers of young pheasants. About another I5OO pheasants were 
raised using various incubators and alcctric brooders. Any surplus eggs are 
sold to nearby private operators, about 4j000 in the Spring- of 1959'' Although 
the average number of eggs per bird is from 50 'to 60 they had one Korean 
pheasant hen which laid 95 eggf^ this year, A fev/ Hungarian partridge are also 
raised at the station (about I50 in 1959 )• They are all raised under domestic 
hens in order to obtain a better success rate since the eggs cost 4 I^oner 
(O8O0) a piece. They expect up to 77 eggs from a partridge hen. 

In the duck ponds around the station about four or five common 
species of ducks were breeding in a great variety of manufactured nesting 
sites. They also had a tame flock of grey geese along with some Canada geese 
and a fevj other European species of geese. 

- 51 - 

Swedish Research Station ; 

Some of the most interesting work being done on iipland game birds and 
waterfowl was at the Swedish research station at Enanger by Dr. Hoglund, Here, 
as at the reindeer research station, a single scientist was in charge of a 
small station with several teclinicians to aid him. The staff at Enanger 
consists of Dr, Hoglund, a bird keeper, and a clerk to look after correspondence 
and reports of marked birds. The establishment consists of tv/o houses used as 
residences, laboratorj^ and office, an enclosed duck pond and some vdre pons, 

Caporcaillie, black game, and ptarmigan are the most important upland 
game birds in Sweden. All grouse hunting was forbidden from 1952 to 1954 but 
since that time there have been seasons on all three of the major species* 
Hunting of hazel grouse is still not allowed. Around Enanger, the season for 
capercaillie and black game only lasts from September 1st to 8th (including 
the time of my visit). Because they collect birds for research purposes all 
year around, the men at the research station seldom do any hunting during the 
open season. The season varies in other parts of Sweden, It is for the whole 
month of October in some parts of the north. 

The estim.ated kill for 1954-55 in ITorrbotten and Vasterbotten 
provinces was as follov/ss capercaillie 18,000, black game 22,000, and 
ptarmigan 84,000, Capercaillie and black game seemed to be quite common 
through central and southern Sv/eden as I was able to see many during the time 
of my visit. The ptarmigan are confined mostly to the mountains along the 
ITorv/egian border. 

In order to carry out their studies at Enanger Dr. Hoglund and his men 
had first to learn how to raise caper caillies. In the presently used method, 
eggs are taken from vri.ld nests and carried in special transport cases containing 
sponge rubber bottoms '^dth depressions for the eggs and four "hand-warmers" 
mounted above a piece of metal foil in the lid. After collection the eggs are 
incubated in an English made Corfew incubator at about 103 deg, P. for 26 days. 
Black game require only 24 or 25 days to hatch, hazel grouse 24 days and v/illcw 
ptarmigan 21 days. The chicks are placed in small brooders 7a th the heat lamp 
in one upper corner so that a temperature gradient of 30 to 40 deg, 0, is 
established in the cage. At about one or two weeks of age, when suitable 
weather conditions prova-il the chicks are put outside for an hour at a time, 
gradually lengthening the period until at about throe -weeks of age thoj are 
left out around the clock. 

The birds arc fed pheasant food, yolk of hens eggs boiled for two 
minute<?5 flowers, blueberries, spinach, salad, pulp from, pressed apples and 
slices of fresh apple. It is believed that the greater the variety of food 
which can be fed the better. In summer thoy are fed all kinds of green foods 
and oats. During the v/inter eight months, capercaillie eat pine needles, black 
grouse cat birch buds and hazel grouse eat Alnus buds and catkins. In southern 
Sweden capercaillie also eat acorns in the fall aiid Vaccinium in the v/inter. 
In Germany and Russia they eat Fagus silvatica . 

_ 52 - 

Many obsorvationG and experiments have teen carried out on these 
species of "birds at Snanger. Dr^ Hoglund has found that capercaillie do not 
lay eggs until two years of age. Only rJoout 30^^ lay eggs the first year. All 
other grouse arc fertile the first year. In a study of the relation "betvreen 
capercaillie and "blackcock he has been measuring the shape of eggs, length and 
width of "bill, feet, tarstis, middle toe and head, lie is weighing m^ales to 
discover loss of weight at displaying time. Ho is studying the moult and the 
Qgg laying and mating behaviour of the "birds „ He has "been experimenting v/ith 
hylDridization between the two and has already found that the eggs of the 
hybrids are smaller than those of either parent. 

An important part of the v;ork at Enanger is the study of bodjr 
temperature and resistance to cold in ;/oung birds. A special cage is built 
with thermostatic control and chicks and ducklings are placed in it. At a 
specified temperature, for example 14 dog, C, , they a,re left for a previously 
determined time, possibly 20 minutes. The rectal temperature is taken before 
and after the exposure to find what has occurred. It has been found 
that capercaillie chicks get rigid from the cold when the body temperature 
starts to fall. They arc unable to feed and must return to the hen for v/armth. 
The chicks can stand a lower temperature if dry than if they are wet. This 
means that a combination of cold and wet v/eather for three to five days vj'hen 
the chicks are newly born is fatal to nearly all of the hatch because they 
cannot travel about to feed. The critical period is over in l8 days for 
capercaillie chicks as the first moult has come on about that time. It has 
been found that ducklings are quite different being much more resistant to 
cold than the chicks. These findings on captive birds they are now attempting 
to confirm on vdld birds, 

T-he major project with v;-aterfov/l is a food habit study. Although 
there is a hunting season for mallards from August 1st to November 15th in 
that area, •.7aterfov\rl shooting is not extensively carried on. Due to the 
present shortage of v/aterfov^/l it is not even possible to do research on vald 
■ birds. In the food habits study young ducks are raised at Enanger and 
released in special small lakes. They are then collected at intervals through 
the year for crop oxaraination. 

About 8,000 birds are marked and released each year at the Enanger 
research station, Capercaillie have been returned from up to 30 kilomctrcr; 
(19 miles) from the release point, Hov/ever, the average distance travelled by 
males in that part of Sweden is usually two or three kilometres (about one mile 
and a half to two miles), liens move somev/hat farther distances. The tags used 
on chicks and ducklings are wing tags because it is difficult to band very 
young birds. The wing bands can be used Vi/hen the bird is less than a day old. 
They are put through the petagium or fleshy leading edge of the v^ing and hang 
beneath the Over 50,000 of these tags have been used since 1945 and they 
no';; have recoveries of birds eleven years old. Hunter returns of older birds 
show equal numbers of vdng-tagged and leg-banded birds. On this evidence they 
are convinced tliat the tags do not tear out and are of much value for tagging 
young birds. 

- 53 - 

Many other projects arc being studied at the research station on a 
loss intensive hasis. The nesting habits of wild grouse are being investigated 
by means of electrical contacts placed under v/ild nestSo The food habits of 
various birds and animals such as goshawks, minte, mart ens and foxes are being 
investigated. Likewise the stomachs and crops of all species of grouse 
analyzed. Altogether it v/as apparent that a good deal of excellent v/ork was 
being accomplished at this station. My visit to Enanger provided me with my 
best look at European grouse and the work being done on them. 

Birds in Other Countries ? 

In Finland Ivir, Matti Helminen of the Game Research Institute in 
Helsinki told me something of his V70rk on upland game birds. He collects wings 
and tails of capercaillie and black gam.e from, hunters in much the sam.e manner 
as we do for ruffed grouse. He is also working on the parasites of these birds 
and on their sub-spcciation. 

In Norway I v/as informed that Dr, Hagen of the Gam.e Research 
Institute near Oslo v/orked on upland game birds. Unfortunately time did not 
permit a visit to this establishment. Since about 75^ of Norv/ay is mountainous 
country ptarmigan is their most important game species. 

In Britain although I was able to see rod grouse in the field time 
did not permit an investigation of the grouse v/ork being done by Drs, Watson 
and Jenkins v/hom I mot and talked to briefly in Arnheim, Holland, I had not 
heard of them on my first visit to Britain. 


The Norwegian Sportsmen's Club controls and manages the fishing in 
the management unit comprising all lakes in the immediate vicinity of Oslo, 
Anyone v/ho wishes to fish in these waters can buy a licence from the club for 
5 Norwegian Kroner (about ,700). No Government licence is required. The sale 
of these licences along wdth an additional 3,000 to 5? 000 Norwegian Kroner 
(about $430 to $710) Government subsidy provides the club with a total 
fisheries budget of about 80,000 Norwegian Kroner (about •Sll3400)„ With this 
money they manage fisheries in the waters of the management xrait and operate a 
fish hatchery nea.r Oslo, 

Much of the work is on a voluntary basis. The only permanent employee 
in the fisheries v/ork is the m.aii who runs the hatchery. Eighty-five groups of 
men totalling 450 individuals put in, on the .average, 40-45)000 hours work each 
year voluntarily, A schedule is drawn up for the year as follows? Spring - 
coarse fish control work. Summer - scale collections, stomach collections and 
v/ater pH measuremicnts for Government biologists, improvement v/orks of various 
kinds such as digging out spavming beds and removing brush. Autumn - fish 
stocking. Winter - lake measuring for survey purposes. 

- 54 - 

Mr. ICnut Rom in conducting me around the hatchery told mc something 
of its operation. They hatch about 200,000 hro^jm trout each year. On the 
average ahout 160,000 of those are ready for stocking in September, About 30^ 
of the stocked fish are recovered at around 14 to l6 inches in length. There 
is a size limit of 25 centimetres (about 10 inches) on the trout. An 
estimated 35~42,000 fish are caught by rod from the shores of the lakes and 
streams around Oslo each year. The food used in the hatchery is largely beef 
liver. About I5OO kilogrammes (about 3}300 lbs.) of liver per year is used in 
the production of the 160,000 trout. Three types of tanks were in use. The 
standard long trout rearing troughs, large cement tanks set into the ground in 
v/hich the v/ater could be raised or lov/ered by the shifting of a chain holding 
a moveable pipe, and a new type of square tank made out of fibre-glass, ?/ater 
passes through the tanks at the rate of about 50 litres per minute (about 
12 gallons per minute) for each tank thus totalling 2,500 litres per minute 
(625 gallons per minute) altogether. Although the hatchery was rather small 
compared to some of our larger ones it was a large scale and efficiently run 
operation for a sportsmen's club to undertake, 


There is no actual course in fisheries at the University of Uppsala 
but there are tv;o professors of limnologj'' and one of ichthyology. In the 
Swedish Government there is no Department of Fisheries as there is in Norway, 
but there is a Fisheries Board in the Department of Agriculture, The Board is 
divided into two sections. One deals solely with pollution, the other one is 
sub-divided into three bureaus, one dealing with fresh water fisheries, one 
vri-th marine fisheries and one v/ith general administration. This section also 
runs the two laboratories for fresh water and marine research. There are 
local fisheries organizations in Sv^reden, three to the north of Stockholm, four 
to the south of Stockholm and a marine organization for either coast. Besides 
these organizations there is a fisheries assistant attached to 23 of the 24 
provinces in the provincial administration who co-operat^';s closely mth the 
local organizations, 

Near Stockholm I visited the Institute of Fresh Walter Research at 
Drottingholm, Sv/eden, Dr. Liidstrom shoY/ed mo the work in progress and 
explained Swedish fishing laws and customs. Besides straight fisheries 
research the people in the laboratorj^ at Drottingholm give advice on damage 
estimates a.nd claims at power dam sites. Much of the research work concerns 
grov/th of fish including back calculating growth from scale samples. They are 
also trying to do some work on population estimates but have as yet done 
nothing on physiology. They are studying spavming behaviour of five or six 
species be means of motion picture films. Dr. Uillson is vrorking on stomach 
analysis and competition betY/eon species. There is also some v;ork being done 
on the systematics of whitefish, the biology of young whitefish and the 
relation of young whitefish to plankton. Dr. Runnstrom is working on the 
biology of the char. Reports of the Insituto of Freshwater Research can be 
found in the Fish and Wildlife Library at Maple. 

- 55 - 

Other Countries g 

In Britain I was able to learn very little about fisheries other 
than the system of renting out streams. The streams were divided into 
sections and the charge for fishing rights for any ono section v/as determined 
by its productivity. Thus a section v/ith very little cheince of catching fish 
v/ould have a lev,- rental whereas a stretch of stream producing good numbers of 
fish would have a very high rental. Since it is not illegal to sell fish in 
Brita,in part of the cost of renting the section of stream can be recovered by 
selling the fish which are caught in it. To some extent this adjusts the 
difference between the high cost and low cost sections. In Germany also 
fishing rights are rented out. On State land where the fishing rights are 
rented to private sportsmen the sportsmen are required to look after fish 
stocking and any other management work that may be undertaken. 


British Forestry ; 

Forestry in Britain at the present time consists mainly of 
reforestation work and plantation manager.ent. Hundreds of years of use and 
mis-use of the forests follov/ed by the demands of two v/orld wars have left 
Britain woefully short of productive forests. In both Wales and Scotland the 
British Forestry Commission is undertaking extensive conifer plantings to 
remedy this situation. To a person from eastern Canada where trees are overy- 
v/here abundant the complete absence of trees on the hills of Wales and on the 
highlands of Scotland is little short of astonishing,' Although vast areas of 
these so-called v/aatelands are used for sheep grazing, the Forestry Commission 
has found that majiy sections would be of more value in trees. Large scale 
planting projects have been undertaken to bring these lands into productive 

Although there is no doubt that reforestation brings industry to the 
highlands and reclaims much land to a m.ore useful form of vegetation, there 
are some unfavourable features to the pla,nting programme. The trees v/ere 
planted in large rectangular blocks that contrasted jarringly with the scenery 
composed of rolling heather covered hills. It vfo.s most surprising to hear 
residents condemn trees as a detriment to the scenery rather than acclaimed 
them as a welcome addition, 

A second qucstiona.blc aspect of the programme in the practice of 
planting large blocks of conifers. Ecologists knew this produces an unnatural 
state which caji be very dangerous „ Undoubtedly economic considerations have 
entered into their present planting policies but it is unfortunate that less 
emphasis could not be placed on present economics and more thought given to 
long term benefits, 

A third problem involved in the planting programme is the effect on 
deer. The men in the Nature Conservancy showed particular concern in this 
regard. In order to protect the 3-oung forests it has been necessary to erect 
high fences around them to keep out the deer. Not onlj do the fences establish 

- 56 - 

temporary barriers to door movements tut the forests thonselves will reduce 
forage land available to deer and establish permanent barriers because of the 
barren interiors of the solid conifer stands. Already deer are being forced 
into new migration routes which are bringing about more damage to farm crops. 
It is doubtful v;hether the ecological consequences of these mass planting 
programmes are being fully considered by the Com.mission planners. 

The condition of English forests presented a pessimistic preview of 
the possible future look of our own forests. At the Merlewood Research 
Station at Grange- over-Sands in England I had the good fortune of accompanying 
Dr, Charles Elton of Oxford and Dr„ Elliott of the Merlewood Station to a wood 
in which they told me they Y/erc attempting to regenerate a natural woodlot. 
This seemed to be a contradiction of terms until they reminded me that all 
forests in England contain a large percentage of non-native species and have 
long been grown under the influence of human disturbing factors. This 
particular vroodlot was set aside to be opened up by selective cutting and 
elimination of a,ll foreign species so that natural regeneration vrould occurc 
It was hoped that in 100 years time this treatment would produce a natural 
native forest. In the meantime the v/oodlot vidll be used as a study area in 
which as rich a native flora as possible has been established. Here wa,s a 
case in which it was too late to preserve a sample of typical forest. The 
sample had to bo produced the hard v/ay, 

Sweden s 

The forests of Sweden are very nearly analogous to those of Ontario, 
In the southj hardv/ood forests including such species as the oaks and beech 
are very cominon. Although there are some spruce and Scotch pine forests in 
the south, they become more plentiful and the tolerant hardwoods less frequent 
farther north. Also replacing the tolerant hardwoods are the European aspen 
and birch. Thus it is that moving north through Sweden one sees very similar 
forest changes to those seen when moving north through Ontario, 

Despite superficial resemblances , however, there are some differences. 
The species are not quite analogous, Scotch pine for example can be found in 
high sandy sites similar to those occupied by our jackpinc and also in the 
3v:amps in situations coraparG,blo ^^th those of our black spruce. The soils of 
northern Sweden are not high in calcium content as in parts of northern Ontario 
but they are very lovj in nitrogen content. Time after tim.e on our trip 
through northern Sweden it was pointed out that if the forest were cut the 
deciding factor in its regeneration would be the presence or absence of 
sufficient nitrogen in the soil. Very little regeneration would take place 
under standing trees because of the depletion of nitrogen by the root system 
of the trees. This fa,ct had to be taken into consideration in planning silvi- 
cultural treatments. 

Hormone Sprays ; 

Several advanced forestry practices are in use in Sweden, One of 
these examined by our group was the use of hormone sprays both from the ground 
and from the air to eliminate deciduous reproduction in favour of the preferred 

- 57 - 

evergreen reproduction. One of the places where we stopped had heen cut tliree 
times? once a ^exj long time ago, a second time in the 1940 's and a third time 
in the 1950' s. The general opinion of those present was that the spraying on 
this site v/ould likely he successful. It appeared that the young evergreen 
reproduction would he forthcoming and that the lichens, v»rhich had to be 
considered as an important winter food for the reindeer herds of the area, 
would prohahly not he affected, A second place which we examined was sprayed 
hy hand ahout five years previously. The larger trees which had heen girdled 
before spraying showed no new shoots hut smaller trees, mostly birch, which had 
been sprayed on the leaves only, now showed some recovery. 

Although local results looked good, there were some reservations 
among the Sv/edish scientists about the advisability of such ¥/idespread use of 
an unknovv-n technique. In 1958? 30,000 hectares (about 115 square miles) vrere 
sprayed and in the present summer of 1959? 40,000 (about 155 square miles) 'were 
being sprayed. It was pointed out that this was being done v/ith little of no 
scientific knov/ledgc about the effects of the spraying on such complicated 
ecological problems as soil microorganisms. Although the teclinique appeared to 
be getting results, v/ithout more research work its vvadespread use was dangerous. 

Control led Burnings 

A second advanced technique being used in Swedish forestry was the 
much talked about controlled burning. In Muddus National Park Dr. Uggla 
showed us the area on v/hich he had been studying the effects of controlled 
burning on the forests, Muddus National Park is not designed primarily for 
tourists but rather for research work, No hunting, fishing or flov/er picking 
is allowed. About 22^ of the park area is northern bog type the rest being the 
central Swedish' upland type. All forms- of native Sv^edish vvdldlife are present 
including bears, reindeer, raoose, foxes, capercaillie and eagles. When a 
power developm.ent project threatened to submerge large areas of the park a five 
man team was appointed to study various aspects of the flora and fauna that 
would be destroyed. In the parts of this area which v/e exam.incd there had been 
a very hard fire in 1933 and young Scotch pine resulting from it were everyv/here 
in evidence. 

Dr. Uggla' s problem was to study the regeneration a,fter controlled 
burning, particularly -.'.dth regard to the birches, Botu lc, ,y_a.jri_cosa and Betula, 
pU;bss_cens_c He found that here in the north of Sweden, Rubu_s species obtain 
their greatest abundance four or five years after a fire. Almost immcdicitely 
ifollov.dng, at five to six years, is found the greatest abundance of Culmin aria , 
The rate of regeneration of trees after the fire is affected by their natural 
ability to spread, Eirchos as a riile of thumb, are considered to be able to 
spread their seeds two to three times an far as the height of the tree, vmilo 
pines can only spread seeds a distance equal to the height of the tree. Birch 
seed are also more frequent than pine seed years which only occur every 
tenth year. It is only once in 100 years that all factors are favourable for 
pine regeneration. In most years there is some adverse factor to hold them 

In an effort to find out what happened in the midst of a forest fire, 
Dr, Uggla developed special instruments \7hich he was able to take 
temperatures "vvhile the fire was in progress. He found that tem.peratures up to 

- 58 - 

1,150 dogB» C, could be measured and that tlie soil was completGly sterilized on 
tlie surface hj the fire. Yet despite this heat he found that the trees were 
not killed by the heat a,lono. In some cases trees not subjected to the heat 
■>."ero killed in exactly the same manner as those that wcrCo He has not yet 
determined v/hat is the killing factor but expects that it may be the smoke » He 
found that the soil cooled so quickly after the fire had passed that a, person 
could v;-alk through an area v/hich had been burned in his bare feet five minutes 
after the fire wont by, Dr, Uggla has now finished studying the plants and the 
effects of temperature p.nd is proceeding to the study of the chemical results 
of controlled burning. 

When asked about the extent of controlled burning in Sv/eden Dr, Uggla 
related the fire history of the forest. He stated that there were three stages. 
The first stage might be termed natura.1 fires due to lightning and accidental 
huma,n agencies. Due to modern fire suppixission methods those fires are not as 
frequent as they used tc be, nor are they so big. The second came vTith 
the burning of forests for the purpose of clearing by forest dwelling people. 
In the past in both Sv/edon and Finland the ^inlanders would burn over an area 
axid use it for about three years before going on to a new place. This stage 
seemed to bo roughly equiv-alent to the burning done by Indians on the North 
American continent. The third stage is purposeful burning which has been 
common- in Sweden since 1930, From that date to the present, over a ten year 
period, n,bout 1,500 hectares (5o8 square miles) would bo burned by accidental 
fires, v/hile over 50,000 hectares (l95 square miles) would be burned by 
controlled methods, Dr, Uggla estimated that about ten years vYOuld be gp.ined 
in the reforestation cycle by burning. The tendency in recent years has been 
to reduce the size of the areas burned from 100 to 50 or even as low as 
10 hectares (247 acres, to 124 acres to 25 acres). The burning is carried out 
only under ideal conditions. At least five .inches of organic matter must be 
present a,nd the moisture content should be .about 60^, Burning can be very 
destructive v/hore the soil is thin over the substrate. Controlled firos are 
directed dov/nhill and ag.ainst the mnd in order that they may be controlled and 
not allov^'ed to develop into crown fires. 

Pulp and Paper Compan ies s 

In the course of studying moose management in the Scandinavian 
countries two puli; and paper coi:-p.anies were visited, one in Sv/cden and one in 
rJorway. The comp.any in Sv/eden was the Ciro.ningcverken A,B„ I conferred v/ith 
lir. Henning Hamilton v/ho worked at silviculture and reforestation besides 
mancaging the hunting on company land. The cor.pany ovms outright about 200,000 
hectares (one-half million acres) of woodlands. Most of these holdings wore 
bought from sm.all farmers and are, therefore, scattered over very much country. 
This is the case with m.any pulp and pa,per companies in northern Sv.reden, They 
xQ now in the process of trying to consolidate thoir holdings by buying and 
c3:changing land. The Craning everken Company is not a diverse corporation, as 
our companies commonly are, but is ovmed by one family. They have thjree mills 
for pulp and paper production and one saw m.ill .along with severa,l electric 
power developments. One hundred-and-fif ty million Kronor (about thirty million 
dolla,rs) are invested in one power sta.tion a.lone. The company is divided into 
several divisions; one for each mill, a woodlands division, a selling division 
and an electric pov/er division. In the woodlands division the chief forester 

- 59 - 

Ii'lS under hin in st.aff position, men to look after roads, Ip.v/s, holding 
fornalitics, forest conservation (Jilr, Hamilton's position), scaling and 
transportation. In an executive position he has nine foresters who direct all 
operations in thoir ovvti districts, the districts being about 20,000 hectares 
(about 77 square miles) in size. Each of these district foresters has v/ith him 
from, one to four rangers. 

About 90/0 of the forest reproduction on company lands is natural and 
about lOfo planted. Mr, Hamilton commented that their company depended more on 
natural reprod;u.ction than riost com.panies did. Per pino reproduction the seed 
tree method was most coni-aonly used but for spruce reproduction small clear cuts 
v/erc made in order to get seeding from tJie sides. It was felt that the seed 
tree method was not good for spruce because of the danger of blow dc^i. Most 
of the clear cut areas were 10 to 20 hectares (25 to 50 acres) in size. Any 
cutting units under one to five hectares (2„5 to 12.5 acres) vrere discoura.ged 
on the grounds that they vv'ere uneconom.ical. In the case of pine reproduction, 
larger areas could bo cut because of the use of the seed tree method. In many 
places pine and spruce were intermixed so that a corabina,tion of methods v/as in 
use. About one third of the v/ood used by their mills came from their ov/n 
forests. The reraa,inder was bought from local farmers, 

ITor^vay ; 

In 'NoTvie.y I discussed the operations of the Eidsvold Vaerk Pulp and 
Paper Company of Hurdal, Norway, with Idr, Axne KrafCt. This company has holdings 
totalling about 4OO square kilometres (155 square miles). About 20 to 30^ of 
their production is in tim.ber with the rest in pulp except for a little fuel 
Y/ood. The annual production is about 100,000 cubic metres (35534 cu.ft.) of 
wood. About 95/^ of their production is spruce and the rest is pine axid hard- 
v\rood. This is in approximately the same ratio as the forest composition of the 
c.rea. Pine reproduction is almost entirely by the seed tree method wliilo the 
spruce reproduction is about half by means of clear cutting and planting, and 
half by means of clear cutting v/ith natural reproduction. 

Under the company's chief forester are ten district forest managers 
each over a forest division. As in the Swedish company the chief forester 
co-ordinates the work of the ton forest rnanagors who a,rc graAuatos of forestry 
schools. The forest manager has the say in cutting practices, planting, hiring 
of men and practically all operations in his cywn a,rea. Most of tho men used 
n,ro Ic'.'oal farnoro but the- com.pany also has staff houses for permanent employees. 
This company has decided to put moose hunting on a business basis and has hired 
n, biologist to look r.fter tho moose mano.gement and hunting organization. Moose 
arc considered as a crop of the la,nd to be utilized as efficiently -as the trees. 

Germajiy s 
Forstenreid Park ? 

On the outskirts of Munich lies Forstenreid Park, some 4-yOOO hectares 
(15,5 square miles) of combined forest plantation and wildlife hunting reserve. 
It is administered by a chief forester assisted by an office staff of three, 
plus three foresters and two gamekeepers. About 17,000 cubic metres of irood. 

- 60 - 

are sold each year from this area, at the rate of ahout four cuhic metres per 
hectare (about 57 cu, ftc per acre). Harvesting is planned in ten year 
periods and planting is planned 100 years ahead. About 30/^ of the reproduction 
is natural and about 70^ artificial. A small tree nursery was maintained 
v/ithin the park to provide trees for transplanting. It was estimated that one 
hectare of artificial planting costs I5OO Marks ($150. per acre). The soils 
of this area arc an alluvial sediment from the glaciated Alps. I v/as told that 
reforestation in the mountains presents many problems. Som.e old trees must 
always be left to protect the young ones from frost. They are 550 metres 
(aboiit 1800 ft.) above sea level. 

Sil vicultural Theories s 

In the Park I had my first close look at German forestry. Everywhere 
throughout Germany and Austria the traditional forests of single species ever- 
green composition are evident. The long straight rows of trees with all ground- 
vegetation shaded out looked to me like oversized rows of corn. To my surprise, 
comments about the spruce and pine plantations brought the reply that this kind 
of forest was novv"- outdated, I had been under the impression that the 
revolution in German forestry was mainly in theory but it is apparently a fact 
that is common knowledge. Upon hearing of my interest in the new forest 
practices, the Park Forester conducted us to another part of the park where a 
young forest of mixed pines, fir trees and beech v/as in evidence, I was told 
that on all modern German forestrj'" plantations this type of planting was being 
carried out. Different species might be used in suitable places but always it 
must be a mixture* They went on to explain that attacks of insect pests and 
deterioration of the soil over hundreds of years in the solid evergreen stands 
had lead to the abandonment of the old method. Although they did not look as 
impressively neat and clean as the old forests, from an ecological standpoint 
the new forests looked much more balanced. There was no doubt that they v/ould 
be better for v/ildlife. It was very gratifying to see that the new concepts 
had such v/idespread acceptance. 

Logging by Gable_ in the Alp sg 

High in the Bavarian Alps north of the Austrian frontier I came across 
an unusual form of logging,. After many attempts to log the forests in the high 
mountains hj different methods, they finally succeeded with the use of a cable 
carrier which runp. without support for 2,000 m.etrcs (about 2,200 .yds.) from the 
mountain top to the nea,rest road belo-v;. About 40 cubic m.etres of logs per 
day are brought (iowa this cable in loads of t\ro or tl-jree logs at a time. They 
estimate l^t cubic metres per load, 5OO cubic metres being brought domi in 325 
loads. Using this method, they cut about 8,000 culac metres of wood per year 
off 10,800 hectares (about 42 square m.iles) of forested mountains in Fall 
County, The cost was estimated at fi^re to six Marks per cubic metre (about 30 
or 40 per cu. ft,) plus an extra 40,000 Marks ($10,000) for installation- of 
machinery. Since the highest mountain in Fall County is 2,105 metres (6,900ft,) 
and the slopes are extremely precipitous, this was indeed a remarkable 

- 51 - 


During the short time that I v;a3 in Austria, I only managed to find 
out a fov; things aoout Austrian forestry* I "vvas most surprised to find that 
about 75/^ O- Austria is forest land. Many Canadians think of Europe as tree- 
less farmland spotted with cities and overrun with people. These fig-ares from 
Austria show that such ideas are far from the truth. I v/as interest in 
learning that Populus canadensis was imported into Austria some years ago. 
With it had come a leai-eating heetle v;hose larvae live in the baric of the 
tree, A destructive butterfly was also included with the trees. These now 
have to be fought. The Austrians are importing the fungus that grov/s in the 
trachea of the insects which has been used for their control in North America, 
This is just one more example of the dangers of importing exotic species, 


1. European v,-ildlifc philosophies and la\7G provide less freedom for the 

individual hunter to hunt where he chooses , but more organization of 
hunting and protection of the rights of landovmers, 

2. Host v/ildlife management is done privately. There are very fev; government 


3. At the vd.ldlifo confei'ence in Arnhem, it appeared that although the ' 

traditional wildlife management methods of central Europe v;ork v/ell, they 
are so entrenched that little progress is being made in developing new 

4o European sportsmen's associations take a more active part in game manage- 
ment work than they do in North America.' As a result many are subsidized 
by tho Governm.ent , 

5, The v/ildlife school at Ostermalma put more emphases on hunting tecbJiicLues 

than is usually seen in North American wildlife schools. 

6, The management of reindeer in Pinnosoandia is largely a problem of range 

management not unlike that with cattle in western North America, 

7, Moose hunting in Sv;eden is a very popula.r sport. Moose are much more 

heavily cropped than in Ontario duo to m.ore a.ccessibility. Moose 
production is heavier due to excellent interspersion of farms, pulp 
companies, etc, and the fact that a favourite food, Scotch pine, is also 
a v/idely distributed forest tree, 

3, Judging from the Sv/odish moose conditions, numbers of moose and numbers 
of moose hunters will probably increase in Ontario. Moose hunting may 
v/ell become as important as deer hunting in southern Ontario, 

9o Moose present a problem, to forest management in Sweden because of the 
damage they do to Scotch pine reproduction. An effort is made to keep 
moose numbers lov/ enough so that damage is not excessive, 

10, The red deer of Scotland are greatly overpopulated. In Europe the red 
deer population is controlled to prevent damage to forest reproduction. 
A most artificial situation exists in the v/ay the deer are dependent on 
^.".dntor feeding. This has been brought on by encroachment of humans on 
former v/intering lands. 

- 62 - 

11, Requirements for obtaining hunting licences are very exacting in Germany, 

Perhaps we could adopt one of their ideas by adding some q_uestion on 
knov/lcdge of game to our huntor safety course » 

12, Roe deer in Europe are small enough to exist in quite highly populated 

areas. They are probably the most important big game animals in Europe, 
Their management is highly detailed and complex. Each farm is 
considered as a unit and managed as such, 

13. The only research on big game populations equivalent to v/ork done in North 

America was the work on red deer and roe deer at the Danish research 
station at Kalo, 

14. Wild boars are maintained only in parks and hunting preserves because of 

the damage they do to farm lands, 

15« The research work on chamois diseases in the Bavarian Alps was the most 
impressive seen in central Europe. A most unusual approach to 
controlling wildlife diseases was their attempt to improve the general 
condition of the animals by reduction of numbers and distribution of 
medicated salt block to eliminate intestinal parasites, 

l6o Fur-bearers seemed more important in Finland than any other country. The 
mink is regarded as a menace in the Scandinavian countries, 

17 o The Svredish research stations on upland game birds and on reindeer showed 
the excellent results possible by supplying research scientists with 
sufficient sub-tech_nical assistance. This was possible with a very small 
outlay of money in buildings and equipment, 

18, Only a little fisheries work was seen. It appeared not unlike work being 
done in ITorth America, 

19c In Britain the planting of solid conifer stands is nov/ in progress, but in 
Germany this practice has been superceded by the new silvicultural ideas 
calling for mixed conifer and deciduous stands. In Sweden forest 
practices are very intensive. The use of hormone sprays and controlled 
bi.irning is v/ide spread, 


It V70uld be impossible to list the many people v/ho assisted me on 
this trip. Every one connected in a,ny wa,y with natural resources extended a 
most cordial welcome and made every effort to provide the information I was 
seeking. I am particularly indebted to llx , Ahti who made possible the trip 
through Laplandj irir, Sv/edrup and I;'Ir, Wallcrstedt of the Sv/edish Sportsmen's 
Association who made all other arrangements in Sv/eden., and Ivir, Gunder who 
shov/ed me Bavaria, 


Malfflj Anders-Erik, Jan Akorman and Daniel Andreae, 

• 1959. Algjagarons bok, Natur och Kultur Stockholmj Sweden, pp, 1-470. 
Peterson, Randolph L. 

1955<> North American Moose, University of Toronto Press, pp. 1-280. 
Skuncke, Folke, 

1958 <= Renbeten och deras gradering, Almgvist and Y/iksells 

Boktrychcri A3, Uppsala, Sweden, pp, 1-204, 

R E C E I Y E D